7 comprises a top cover 702, which is fixed. FIG. 3B illustrates one embodiment of a three bar actuator array 34 comprising three bars 34A, 34B, 34C coupled to a fixed frame 31, where each bar is separated by a divider 37. Each of the bars 34A-C comprises an electrode 32 and an elastomeric dielectric 33. The three bar array 34 amplifies the motion of the sliding surface in comparison to the single bar actuator array 30 of FIG.
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The optical system may also be a lens stack which is illuminated by an array of LED light sources (or other light sources) as the display. A reflector or array of reflectors may be included in the stack for more capability in changing intensity, focus, and beam direction, particularly where the optical system includes an additional actuator which can change the displacement between any combination of the lens array, the reflector, and the LED array. This arrangement provides a reflector “ring”, however, any other suitable arrangement of reflectors and the resulting construct may be employed with the present invention. In 1724, at age 24, he had published a mathematical work in which he investigated a problem begun by Newton concerning the flow of water from a container and several other problems involving differential equations.
In reality, the velocity on the upper surface of a lifting wing is much higher than the velocity which produces an equal transit time. The theory is known as the “equal transit time” or “longer path” theory which states that wings are designed with the upper surface longer than the lower surface, to generate higher velocities on the upper surface because the molecules of gas on the upper surface have to reach the trailing edge at the same time as the molecules on the lower surface.
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But the equal transit velocity is not the correct velocity. When a gas flows over an object, or when an object moves through a gas, the molecules of the gas are free to move about the object; they are not closely bound to one another as in a solid. Bernoulli’s equation, which was named for Daniel Bernoulli, relates the pressure in a gas to the local velocity; so as the velocity changes around the object, the pressure changes as well. For example, a single, variable-phase actuator, may be used to displace the light source and/or the reflector/lens assembly to change directionality of the light rays where the directionality depends on the “phase” in which the actuator is operated. Dolor de espalda y costilla izquierda . Multiple actuators or phases of actuators may be used to direct the light in different directions.
The optical system may further comprise one or more reflectors in some embodiments. 2010/0164329 relates the use of an electroactive polymer actuator to move a light source with respect to one or more reflectors to change the angle of the reflector (and the angle/intensity/focus of the output beam of light). Positioned about the light source is a reflector assembly which includes one or more reflectors, e.g., mirrors, or lenses. FIGS. 12A, 12B and 12C illustrate the steps of assembling an optical system which has an artwork as the display in this embodiment. Optionally, a second actuator capable of changing the transverse displacement between the lens element and the display unit may be included in some embodiments. As mentioned herein, moving displays cause friction problems; therefore, the present inventors positioned a clearance (gap) between the display unit and the lens to eliminate the friction. By moving the lens array either laterally or transversely with respect to the LED light source array, the light perceived by the user can change in intensity, focus, and beam direction.
Integrating the effects of either the pressure or the velocity determines the aerodynamic force on an object. The drag is the component of the aerodynamic force which is parallel to the original flow direction of the gas. This is very different from the motion of solids, on which we base most of our experiences in physics.
The most popular incorrect theory of lift arises from a mis-application of Bernoulli’s equation. If we know the correct velocity distribution, we can use Bernoulli’s equation to get the pressure, then use the pressure to determine the force. From Newton’s third law of motion, a turning action of the flow will result in a re-action (aerodynamic force) on the object. Newton’s laws of motion are statements concerning the conservation of momentum. Some twenty years later, in 1686, he presented his three laws of motion in the Principia Mathematica Philosophiae Naturalis. He developed the theories of gravitation in 1666, when he was only 23 years old. Theories on the generation of lift have become a source of great controversy and a topic for heated arguments for many years. Aliviar dolor muscular por ejercicio . Arguments arise because people mis-apply Bernoulli and Newton’s equations and because they over-simplify the description of the problem of aerodynamic lift. The proponents of the arguments usually fall into two camps: (1) those who support the “Bernoulli” position that lift is generated by a pressure difference across the wing, and (2) those who support the “Newton” position that lift is the reaction force on a body caused by deflecting a flow of gas.
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The lift is the component of the aerodynamic force which is perpendicular to the original flow direction of the gas. Which camp is correct? So both of these equations are satisfied in the generation of lift; both are correct. So both “Bernoulli” and “Newton” are correct. Notice that we place the names in quotation marks because neither Newton nor Bernoulli ever attempted to explain the aerodynamic lift of an object. The names of these scientists are just labels for two camps.
Petersburg. If we include the effects of viscosity, we have the Navier-Stokes Equations which are named after two independent researchers in France and in England. There is also an incorrect theory which uses Newton’s third law applied to the bottom surface of a wing. There are many explanations for the generation of lift found in encyclopedias, in basic physics textbooks, and on Web sites. Because the molecules move, there is a velocity associated with the gas. Another incorrect theory uses a Venturi flow to try to determine the velocity. Unfortunately, many of the explanations are misleading and incorrect. Pat. Nos. 7,394,282; 7,378,783; 7,368,862; 7,362,032; 7,320,457; 7,259,503; 7,233,097; 7,224,106; 7,211,937; 7,199,501; 7,166,953; 7,064,472; 7,062,055; 7,052,594; 7,049,732; 7,034,432; 6,940,221; 6,911,764; 6,891,317; 6,882,086; 6,876,135; 6,812,624; 6,809,462; 6,806,621; 6,781,284; 6,768,246; 6,707,236; 6,664,718; 6,628,040; 6,586,859; 6,583,533; 6,545,384; 6,543,110; 6,376,971; 6,343,129; 7,952,261; 7,911,761; 7,492,076; 7,761,981; 7,521,847; 7,608,989; 7,626,319; 7,915,789; 7,750,532; 7,436,099; 7,199,501; 7,521,840; 7,595,580; and 7,567,681, and in U.S.
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Suitable electronic control systems are disclosed, for example, in U.S. For example, from the conservation of mass, a change in the velocity of a gas in one direction results in a change in the velocity of the gas in a direction perpendicular to the original change. Secondary reflector 814 is responsible for diverting rays emitted from light source 806 in the upper hemisphere back down to primary reflector 812 in a concentrated ray. Any arrangement of actuators, light sources and reflectors/lenses may be employed, in the subject systems where the relative motion between the light source(s) and reflector(s)/lens(es) is adjusted at a high rate of speed. Suitable power supplies for such applications are configured to generate high oscillating voltages from a direct current (DC) power source, such as a high voltage transistor array. The frequency may be high enough that the user may not perceive the change in focus.
The diaphragm may also be pre-biased upwards by any suitable biasing means (not shown), e.g., a spring, to enhance performance of the actuator. The real details of how an object generates lift are very complex and do not lend themselves to simplification. This theory equates aerodynamic lift to a stone skipping across the water. Dolor de espalda al acostarse boca arriba . In this work, he applied the conservation of energy to fluid mechanics problems. The conservation of mass introduces a lot of complexity into the analysis and understanding of aerodynamic problems. Before launching into a description of various lenticular devices comprising an electroactive polymer actuator, the present disclosure briefly turns to FIG. Electroactive polymer actuators have application in the lighting industry, in the context of both wall socket (120V/60 Hz power) driven/stationary lighting systems and battery-operated/mobile lighting systems. It neglects the physical reality that both the lower and upper surface of a wing contribute to the turning of a flow of gas.
The integrated velocity variation around the object produces a net turning of the gas flow. For a gas, we have to simultaneously conserve the mass, momentum, and energy in the flow. Within the gas, the velocity can have very different values at different places near the object. The error in this theory involves the specification of the velocity on the upper surface. Now adding up the velocity variation around the object instead of the pressure variation also determines the aerodynamic force.