Also, as disclosed in co-pending patent applications, titled “Heave Plate with Improved Characteristics” bearing S/N , and ‘Wave Energy Converter (WEC) with Heave Plates bearing SIN , assigned to the assignee of the present application, and the subject matter of which is incorporated herein by reference as though fully set forth herein, the addition of a vertically extending structure, e.g. WO 2007/130385 PCT/US2007/010513 DAMPING (HEAVE) PLATES HAVING IMPROVED CHARACTERISTICS BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION This invention claims priority from provisional application SIN 60/796,388 filed 5/1/2006 for Wave Energy Converter (WEC) with Heave Plates whose contents are incorporated herein by reference.
Flow separation, or boundary layer separation, occurs when this boundary layer of fluid detaches from the surface of 5 WO 2007/130385 PCT/US2007/010513 the object. When separation occurs the fluid forms eddies and vortices (spinning and often turbulent flow). Thus if a blunt shaped object is moved only a fraction of its diameter no flow separation occurs. In contrast to sharp edges, the flow-around blunt shaped structures without sharp corners, such as cylinders or spheres, can exhibit no flow separation, separation with no vortex shedding, and separation with vortex shedding coinciding with an increase in heave amplitude (often evaluated normalized by the diameter of the object in heave; see, Faltinsen, O.M. SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION A damping (heave) plate, of generally flat configuration, includes a projecting structure, typically in the form of a ledge or lip along the plate edges, for increasing the volume of water moved by the plate.
Tipos De Dolor Pdf
With the added vertical structure, an additional amount of fluid is moved as a function of the volume enclosed by the plate and the added surrounding structure, i.e. The effect of the damping plate 30 is to add mass significantly greater than that of the plate itself to the spar float 20. Such added mass is due to the fact that the acceleration or deceleration of the plate requires movement of some volume of fluid around the plate as it moves. As previously described, the damping plate 30, by itself, moves a volume of fluid proportional to the “equivalent volume” of the plate, determined primarily by the area of the plate. Flow separation can (and in the case of damping plates does) result in increased drag as the object moves through the fluid.
This is advantageous for WECs since decreasing the drag coefficient will result in larger relative motions and hence allowing for a more efficient capture of energy. As in the foregoing examples, the horizontal components result in added mass by adding to the equivalent volume of the plate 30, while the added mass achieved by the vertical components is the height of such components multiplied by the area of the plate. Causas de dolor de pie . In Figs. 8 and 9, the addition of thick circular members 80 or 84 to the plate 30 with vertical dimensions curving towards or away from the spar 20, respectively, increase the added mass as a function, as in previous examples, of the product of the vertical dimension and the plate area.
Alternatively, the circular 9 WO 2007/130385 PCT/US2007/010513 members can comprise curved plates. While useful for adding effective mass to a float, a problem associated with the use of damping plates, at least in connection with WECs, is that the viscous drag forces associated with the plates tends to impede relative movements, thus 2 WO 2007/130385 PCT/US2007/010513 tending to negatively affect power generation. Relative WO 2007/130385 PCT/US2007/010513 movements between the floats are used for driving an energy converter, for example, an electrical generator connected between the floats for generating electrical or any useful energy. A power take off device (PTO) 100 is connected between the float and spar to convert their relative motion into useful energy (e.g. Figure 1 is a side view of a wave energy converter of known type including an elongated “spar” float having a damping plate attached to the lower end thereof; Figure 2 shows the lower end of the spar float shown in Figure 1 but with a known modification of the damping plate; and Figures 3 through 9 are similar to Figure 2 but show damping plates according to the instant invention.
A damping plate 30 is disposed at the lower end of the spar float 20 for increasing its effective mass. Each figure shows the lower end of a spar float 20 to which a known type of damping plate 30 is attached. 3- 9, sharp edges are avoided and lower drag forces are present. The present invention provides means for minimizing the drag forces typically associated with the use of damping plates of the type described.
Dolor Espalda Baja
Another use of the invention is in industrial mixing processes (where an actuator causes a plate to oscillate in a container of non-mixed liquids) in which it is desired to suppress (or enhance) formation of small scale vortices. DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION As shown schematically in Figure 1, a preferred WEC comprises a first, annular float 10 of a generally flat configuration, and a second, elongated float 3 WO 2007/130385 PCT/US2007/010513 20, referred to as a “spar” float, extending through an opening 22 through the annular float 10. In accordance with known technology, the two floats are configured to bob up and down in generally out of phase relationship in response to passing surface waves.
- Quemaduras o lesiones cutáneas de consideración
- Tomar el producto en combinación con sedantes o alcohol
- FIG. 10 depicts another embodiment of a resonating electrical generator
- Establece una mano como base para apoyar el codo del otro brazo
- ¿Cómo acceder a estas unidades
- Sentir ansiedad es normal. No la evites
2 damping plate 30, however, is that the 7 WO 2007/130385 PCT/US2007/010513 plates 40 terminate in sharp edges which tend to generate undesirably high drag forces. 2-9, is added to the damping plates for increasing the 6 WO 2007/130385 PCT/US2007/010513 volume of fluid moved by the plates. The volume of fluid moved is also a function of the frequency with which the plate is moving. Equation 1 where Cm is the experimentally determined factor Vequivalent is the equivalent volume defined above , p is the density of water, and a is the acceleration.