5A, 5B, 5C, 5D-1, 5D-2, 5E, 5F, 5G, 5H, 5I, 5J and 5K that depict a first embodiment of the invention, wherein the thermal energy conversion plant is located in a floating platform. In order to correct said losses or increases in heat in the thermal energy conversion plant, the closed-loop thermodynamic circuit will exchange heat with a heat source and a heat sink. As in the first embodiment, the floating platform comprises a floating vessel 103 wherein in this second embodiment are arranged four condensers 30; four heat pumps 80; four pumps 75 for the pumping of thermal fluid through the thermal circuit 70; four external filters 711 connected through a group of pipes 933 to four internal filters 781, through which sea water 85 is double filtered and injected into the heat pumps 80 by the action of four pumps 783; and a central processing unit, CPU 200, that is connected to a control panel, CP 202. Also said floating vessel 103 is connected with a vertical descending high-pressure resistant submergible vessel 104 wherein the widening ascending conduit 40 is contained, which in tums in connected at its lowest level with a high-pressure resistant submergible vessel 102 wherein the evaporator 20 is arranged.
The working fluid enters liquefied 12 into the evaporator unit 20 wherein gasifies at level LO after raising its temperature to T1; then the gasified working fluid 11 egresses from the evaporator unit 20 and ascends through the widening ascending conduit 40 up to the condenser units 30 under constant temperature of T1 (details V1 and V2, depicted in FIGS. 5K works in the opposite way, wherein the cold thermal fluid 712 comes into the condenser 30 from the bottom, while the gasified working fluid 11 enters through the top and exits liquefied 12 through the bottom, after giving heat to the ascending cold thermal fluid 712. Because in both, the evaporator 20 and the condenser 30, the warner and cold fluids flow in opposite directions, one end of the thermal exchanger will be warmer than the other. In those methods the energy is obtained from the convective flow of a working fluid through an open or closed circuit, wherein said liquefied working fluid gasifies in an evaporator unit located at the lower level of said circuit, by gaining heat from a heat source; ascending gasified the working fluid to an upper level through an ascending conduit, increasing its potential energy; liquefying said working fluid in a condenser unit located at said upper level by giving heat to a heat sink; descending the liquefied working fluid because the force of gravity through a descending conduit, and driving a power extraction apparatus that is connected to said descending conduit, which is commonly a rotary engine, as per example a turbine, that in turn drives an electric generator; returning then such liquefied working fluid to the environment when is an open cycle, or to the lower initial level of said circuit when is a closed circuit, and restarting the cycle.
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All these factors force to generate and excess of energy that has to be stored in order to be used when is needed, by for example pumping water to a dam located at a higher level, and liberating the harnessed water when needed in order to obtain energy from hydropower turbines. In contrast to conventional thermal plants the thermal gradient in OTEC plants between the heat source (warm shallow sea water) and the heat sink (cold deep sea water) is very small, and that dramatically limits the output of the OTEC plant when vaporizing a working fluid in order to power a vapor turbine. For the present disclosure sulfur hexafluoride, formulated SF6, is the proposed working fluid because its absence of hazards, being a nontoxic and nonflammable gas, with a very heavy molecular weight, high density in its liquefied phase, and low viscosity. The proposed closed-loop thermodynamic circuit 10 of the present disclosure is capable of generating great amount of power from natural occurring heat sources and heat sinks, for which the difference in temperature between them is very small (temperature gradient), what makes them impracticable of being used in conventional thermal power plants because the small gradient in temperature, and just suitable of a very small power output in not conventional ones, as in current ocean thermal energy conversion-OTEC, plants.
Because of the great size of the thermal energy conversion plant, different parts of the plant could be exposed to different environments and temperatures. Following are some values of density for Sulfur Hexafluoride at 5° C., under different pressures (measured in Bar): 1,523.3 Kg/m3 at 15 Bar; 1629 Kg/m3 at 100 Bar; 1,704 Kg/m3 at 200 Bar; and 1,759 Kg/m3 at 300 Bar. FIG. 1C is a data table showing different vapor pressure values under different temperatures for sulfur hexafluoride, formulated SF6. 4B represents the basic scheme wherein the power extraction apparatus 50 is an impulse turbine 52, wherein prior to hitting the turbine blades, the fluid’s pressure is converted to kinetic energy by a nozzle focused on the turbine, with no pressure change occurring at the turbine blades, pushing the fluid jet the turbine’s curved blades which changes the direction of the flow. 10, the pressuring gas station 43 will inject an extra amount of pressuring gas into the widening ascending conduit 40, what will help to raise the internal pressure along the thermodynamic circuit 10. Once the working fluid had been withdrawn, the pressuring gas station 43 will start recovering the pressuring gas from the widening ascending conduit 40, lowering its internal pressure.
50; then, from the power extraction apparatus 50 the liquefied working fluid 12 flows back into the evaporator 20, completing a self-pumping process and restarting the cycle. Ferrofluid power generators could work vaporizing completely the carrier fluid, that is where the nanoscale ferromagnetic or ferrimagnetic particles are suspended, or evaporating only a part of it in the thermal absorption unit producing babbles, in order to generate a self-pumping process, but nanoscale ferromagnetic or ferrimagnetic particles will remain solid. This firth embodiment is pretended for geographical areas where there are not high mountains near a sea, and it is more convenient to arrange half of the thermal energy conversion plant under the sea level 830, gaining advantage from the sea’s depth. There are other methods of thermal energy conversion for power generation that had not been commercially build, but that had been for over a century extensively studied and considered, where the hydropower system from the rain cycle in nature is somehow imitated.
- Morfea (o esclerodermia localizada)
- Otras enfermedades clínicas
- Todo en un solo vaso
- Cuando llegue a ebullición, viértela sobre los anises y retírala del fuego
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- O comorbilidades previas al procedimiento y su severidad
- Cansancio y dolores musculares o en las articulaciones
The principal sources of electrical power convert thermal energy generated by burning coal or gas or by atomic fission to superheated steam-working fluid-which is then converted to rotary mechanical power through a turbine which, in turn, drives an electro-mechanical generator. Aliviar dolor de cuello y espalda . W-7405-ENG-48 with the United Sates Atomic Energy Commission; U.S. Pat. No. 4,064,409, entitled “Ferrofluidic Electrical Generator” by Charles M. Redman, and U.S. The number of condenser 30 and evaporator 20 units installed in the closed loop thermodynamic circuit 10 is optional, being possible to have a single or multiple units, depending of the preferred embodiment. In some preferred embodiments, a pressuring gas 41 could be optionally arranged in the widening ascending conduit 40, having said pressuring gas 41 a significantly much lighter molar mass than the working fluid. 2A wherein H1 represents the height between level L0, that is the level at which the liquefied working fluid gasifies with a temperature of T1 at the evaporator unit 20, and level L1 at the top-exit of the widening ascending conduit 40; H2 represent the height between said level L0 and level L2 that is the level at which the gasified working fluid liquefies at the condenser units 30 with a temperature of T0; and H3 represents the height between said level L2 and the level L3 of the power extraction apparatus 50, wherein the liquefied working fluid arrives with a temperature of T0.