1 and 8. Since the apparatus 10 forms a highly compact arrangement, it is well suited for use in a wide variety of applications where space limitations might not permit the use of larger energy harvesting assemblies. It will be appreciated, however, that the support element 32 can have other forms or configurations which permit relative motion, including only one pivotal end, without departing from the scope of this disclosure. 4 restricts the attachment component 54 from rotation, allowing the nut 60 to be adjusted without rotating the attachment component 54. The nut 60 enables a desired axial pre-loading force to be imparted to the beams 12 and 14. A second attachment component 54 and second nut 60 is used to secure the opposite distal end of the coupling element 52 in like fashion.
While various embodiments have been described, those skilled in the art will recognize modifications or variations which might be made without departing from the present disclosure. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS The drawings described herein are for illustration purposes only and are not intended to limit the scope of the present disclosure in any way. The use of a buckled beam for the bias beam 14 is a distinct advantage over other forms of force biasing mechanisms in that the buckled bias beam 14 provides a very low axial stiffness compared to other biasing mechanisms such as compression springs. The dimension of the center substrate 62 of the biasing beam 14 and the center substrate 26 of the piezoelectric beam 12 may also be identical in dimensions, and the substrates 64 may be identical in dimensions to the piezoelectric material layers 28 and 30. The beams 12 and 14, in one implementation, have preferably the same bending stiffness along their longitudinal lengths.
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This enhances the lengthwise bending toughness of the beam 14 while still allowing the widthwise bending stiffness to remain “soft”. In this embodiment the proof masses 16 and 18 are similar in construction and are sufficiently rigid so that they do not flex during operation of the apparatus 10. The proof mass 18 includes a pair of raised ribs 40 that each has at least one, and more preferably a pair, of hemispherical recesses 42. Recesses 42 are positioned to align with the spacing of the protrusions 38, and each has a diameter generally in accordance with the diameter of the protrusions 38. In this manner, for example, when the support element protrusions 38 (FIG.
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The proof masses are further coupled via the coupling element such that they are able to pivot as both beams flex in response to vibration. This causes a simultaneous flexing of the biasing beam 14. The proof masses 16 and 18 pivot freely as the beams 12 and 14 are flexed.
The supporting structure 15 includes a plate forming an upper proof mass 16, a plate forming a lower proof mass 18, and a coupling assembly 20 that draws the proof masses 16 and 18 towards one another to compress the beams 12 and 14. Suitable electrical leads are coupled to the piezoelectric beam to receive electrical output signals generated by the beam 12 as the beam flexes. As the piezoelectric beam 12 flexes from the position shown in FIG. The laminate may be cured at 200° C. Dolor muscular planta del pie . Since the coefficient of thermal expansion for the carbon fibers is greater than that of the piezoelectric sheets, when the laminate cools the piezoelectric sheets are in compression. In such instances, it is often impractical to route wiring to the sensor or actuator for the purpose of providing power to the component.
- (3) select a value of Ctest from the range of interest
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9, it generates electrical signals that can be used to power an external sensor, actuator, or other forms of electrical components. Since the apparatus 10 is able to produce electrical signals that can be used to power an electrical powered component, the elimination of a battery provides the additional advantage that environment disposal concerns are eliminated, which would otherwise be present with the use and replacement of a battery. Both beams 12 and 14 can be viewed as being in a stable position.
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10, the piezoelectric beam moves past an over center position (essentially defined by the orientation of the piezoelectric beam 12 in FIG. Thus, very low vibration forces are able to be sensed by the apparatus 10, and such small forces generate high strains on the piezoelectric beam 12. This is in contrast to many present day energy harvesting systems, which rely on harvesting energy at one or more discrete resonant frequencies. Dolor de espalda al respirar lado izquierdo . The apparatus 10, being especially sensitive to very small vibration amplitudes, enables vibration energy harvesting over a much wider frequency range than is typically possible with existing resonant frequency energy harvesting devices. Thus, an autonomous, inexpensive and reliable energy harvesting device that is able to harvest vibration energy over a wide frequency range, and is responsive to very small amplitudes of vibration energy, would be highly useful in powering remotely located sensors and other forms of devices.
Low power electronics and sensors are becoming prevalent, as are wireless transceivers, that allow various forms of sensors to be placed in remote and inaccessible locations on various structures, for example on various forms of aircraft and spacecraft. The apparatus 10 is especially well suited for aerospace and automotive applications.