It is more likely that the submerged venturi devices will operate in waters characterized by choke speeds ranging from 20 to 30 m/s. The temperature of the seawater in which a venturi device will operate will typically range from −2° C. to 30° C. Within this range of temperatures the vapor pressure of water, and hence the choke speed of a venturi device, will vary only slightly. This type of venturi device, unlike the types discussed earlier, would only generate significant amounts of power when pulled up by its associated flotation device. The propeller spins in a constant direction if the propeller is bi-directional but its direction of rotation reverses if the propeller is unidirectional such a device does not generate much power. Some of the venturi tube’s potential energy that remains after a wave has passed is converted into additional mechanical energy as buoy 26 and its attached venturi 30 falls and again cause the rotation of propeller 21, central shaft 24, cable 44, buoy shaft 24 a and generator 46. All or most of the mechanical energy created during the rising and falling of venturi device 30 is available for conversion into electrical energy.
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Furthermore, even if a perfectly accurate high resolution record could be obtained for a potential deployment site, it would always represent an historical record of wave conditions. Conditions might even vary from year to year. The choke speed will vary primarily with the pressure of the water entering the venturi device, and will therefore tend to increase as the depth of the venturi device below the surface increases. Under these conditions, any other throat diameter, relative to the mouth diameter, will result in a sub-optimal amount of power being available. 16, the optimal amount of power available during a “calm ocean” is lower than the amount available during an “active ocean”, therefore, the optimal minimum relative venturi throat diameter needed to ensure the greatest possible minimum level of power available within an optimized wave energy device would be 0.185. This constitutes the relative throat diameter which ensures that the amount of energy available within each wave energy device during the periods of relatively “calm” (and relatively “feeble”) oceans is maximized.
16 corresponds to a representative “calm ocean” scenario in which the total wave complement contains contributions of: 60% from 2-meter waves; 30% from 4-meter waves; 8% from 6-meter waves; and 2% from 8-meter waves. 1. Calculate the amount of power available with respect to every throat diameter under consideration, with respect to the wave complement characteristic of every interval during the specified period of time (e.g. FIG. 19 shows the differences in the amounts of power available for extraction within a Heck wave energy device, and a similarly sized optimized device. 6. ALTERNATE EMBODIMENTS 6a. Dolor intenso de rodilla al caminar . All Optimal Submerged Venturi Devices The scope of this invention is intended to cover all wave energy devices employing submerged venturi devices which incorporate a venturi effect which approaches, to any non-trivial extent, an optimal level with respect to its real or anticipated pattern of movement in relation to its surrounding water; or, equivalently, all submerged venturi devices which incorporate a venturi effect which approaches, to any non-trivial extent, an optimal level with respect to the pattern with which water moves through the venturi device.
And air is subsequently drawn out of one port in the turbine, and flows in from the other port.
24B illustrate another alternate type of wave energy device similar to that illustrated in FIGS. FIG. 3A shows one embodiment of the novel optimized device of the present invention. And air is subsequently drawn out of one port in the turbine, and flows in from the other port. The optimization of this type of venturi device would also fall within the scope of this patent, as would the optimization of any other type of submerged venturi device. This is because these power levels are relative to the total size of the venturi device. A water-based suction power extraction method would not necessarily require such one-way valves. Water would be able to enter the turbine through an inlet 224C, and a full or partial vacuum created by the suction in the venturi throat would be used to draw water out of the turbine, thus causing it to spin. Cavitation can sometimes (depending on the design and materials used) cause pitting, and in other ways damage, the components of a submerged turbine, and the walls of the venturi device, especially when such cavitation occurs in close proximity to those components.
The other line in FIG. Finally, in FIG. 6 you will see a line (i.e. Under these conditions, any other throat diameter, relative to the mouth diameter, will result in a sub optimal amount of power being available. This means that the water will flash boil and create bubbles of gaseous water vapor. At this speed, it would be difficult to extract a significant amount of energy from the flowing water with a simple turbine because the amount of power that can be extracted from a flowing stream of water by a turbine is proportional to the cube of its speed. FIG. 14 shows a graph created by evaluating the power available for extraction with respect to every possible relative throat diameter within the range of 1.0 (i.e. Dolor de rodilla al hincarse . 22A, i.e. one employing a collapsible venturi shroud, might fit inside a canister 155 for storage, and perhaps as an aid to deployment.
Such conductors extend along one or more of the cables or struts 54-60 supporting venturi tube 130 beneath buoy 26. The optimization of this type of venturi device would also fall within the scope of this patent, as would the optimization of any other type of submerged venturi device. This wave energy device is similar to that illustrated in FIGS. This graph illustrates the basic mechanism for selecting an optimal venturi throat diameter with respect to a specific set of wave conditions. As the choke speed increases, the optimal relative throat cross-sectional area decreases, because the degree to which the water can be accelerated increases. These lifting means can be used to modify the vertical separation and the vertical motion of the submerged venturi tube so that its motion is no longer precisely synchronized with that of the waves passing beneath the buoy. Dolor en mitad de la espalda . 455 kW/m2 is the optimal, or maximal, amount of power which can be made available by a venturi device submerged in water characterized by the specified choke speed when the device is driven by waves with the specified height and period.
FIG. 11 shows how the amount of power which would be available within the throat of a submerged venturi device, relative to the amount of power available at the mouth of the venturi, would change as a consequence of the diameter of the venturi tube’s throat (or the corresponding cross sectional area of the venturi device’s throat) when the corresponding wave energy device were driven by waves with a height of 4 meters and a period of 8 seconds, and the water were characterized by a choke speed of 25 m/s (i.e. A venturi tube accelerates the speed of the water moving through it by converting some of the omni-directional kinetic energy (i.e. The equivalent diameter (i.e. The power made available within a Heck wave energy device is uniformly, and substantially, less than that made available by an equivalent optimized device. As the buoy rises and falls, the submerged turbine is moved up-and-down through the relatively still waters beneath the waves, causing the turbine to rotate, and thus causing the shaft of an attached generator to rotate, thus generating electrical power.
If the turbine blades are bi-directional, shaft 44 rotates in the same direction regardless of whether water is entering venturi 31 from the top or bottom. In truth, such an upper limit exists and is referred to as the “choke speed” of the water. The upward force provided by the buoy acts on the upper end of rigid support 157, and the drag induced by the unfurled venturi shroud 133 acts on the lower end of support 157. For the same reason that a wind vane orients itself to point into the wind, the central rigid support, and its attached venturi shroud, are compelled to point toward the buoy. 9 is an arbitrary value and does not represent an upper limit. The venturi tube in this figure is not drawn to scale.
The sun heats the land and the oceans and much of this heat energy passes into the atmosphere. Differential heating of the atmosphere across the surface of the earth, in conjunction with the rotation of the earth, causes the atmosphere to move across the Earth’s surface, sometimes at relatively high speeds.
When driven by waves with a height of 4 meters and a period of 8 seconds, the maximum speed of a suspended turbine relative to the water around it would be about 1.6 meters per second. In the absence of this lifting means, the vertical speed of the submerged venturi tube, and the speed with which water enters the mouth(s) of the venturi tube, moves between maxima and minima in a sinusoidal fashion. Through the incorporation and use of this lifting means, the vertical motion of the submerged venturi tube is partially decoupled, by means of active lifting (or dropping) of the venturi tube with respect to the buoy. These lifting means, are then attached to the buoy 26. Thus, the lifting means are able to modify the degree to which the buoy and venturi tube are vertically separated. In addition, this invention provides a method for optimizing the design of the venturi component used in these types of devices.
13A is also shown this figure. “venturi factor”, of 18.9. This amplified speed profile ranges from 0 to 30 m/s. Note that the speed reaches it maximum at the points on the wave’s surface that represent the vertical midpoints of the wave’s profile. 13C also includes the same vertical speed profile for the reference wave, which ranges from 0 to 1.57 m/s.
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Heck device, and through the enclosed turbine. Para el dolor de espalda ibuprofeno o paracetamol . 13A and 13B. FIG. FIG. 3A is a cross-sectional view of a structure similar to that of FIG. Patent 45018/72 by J. Bichard, 1973. See FIG. In deep-water waves, the radii of the orbits of the water molecules decrease exponentially with increasing depth. 22A and 22B with small buoy 26 a. Ser. No. 12/777,409, filed May 11, 2010, and the Ser. In the preferred embodiment, the venturi tube is attached to the buoy by means of struts 54-60 located about the periphery of the tube and buoy. The venturi factor, “Vf” is defined as the ratio of the cross-sectional areas of the mouth and throat. For instance, there might be practical considerations that dictate that the maximum diameter of a practical wave energy device might be 7 meters. It utilizes a pair of wedge-shaped venturi devices that act in concert to spin an embedded turbine.