A third aspect of the invention comprises a method for generating electricity from water flow comprising the use of the apparatus according to the first aspect of the invention, the method comprising providing the apparatus in a flow of water; permitting a tidal or current flow to flow through the venturi, and permitting a secondary flow to flow through the flow conduit and drive the turbine. A first aspect of the invention provides an apparatus for generating electricity using water flow in a body of water comprising: WO 2011/114155 PCT/GB2011/050523 3 – an array of spaced apart elements, each element defining an elongate flow passage having an upstream side and an elongate downstream side, each element being provided with a series of holes spaced along at least part of its length and the downstream side extending and tapering away from the upstream side, wherein the elements are arranged side by side such that opposing walls of adjacent elements define a venturi section and a first diffuser section extending downstream from the venturi section; – a flow conduit having an inlet and an outlet; – a turbine located in the flow conduit; and – a generator or hydraulic pump connected to the turbine; wherein the flow passages are connected to the outlet of the flow conduit such that the flow of water through the venturi sections causes water to be drawn through the flow conduit out via the holes with the resulting flow driving the turbine.
Dolor Neuropático Fisterra
The upstream end of each element can extend and taper away from the holes to form an elongate shape such that when the elements are arranged side by side opposing walls of adjacent elements define a second diffuser section extending upstream from the venturi section. In tidal flows as the water level falls the uppermost holes can become exposed to the atmosphere which exposes the water inside the pipes to atmospheric WO 2011/114155 PCT/GB2011/050523 15 pressure. The water flowing between the upper part of the vertical pipes 20 exits from between the pipes 20 at an elevation above the height of the downstream water level 224. The syphonic cowl 228 isolates the water inside the cowl from atmospheric pressure such that the hydrostatic pressure in the water in the cowl can fall below atmospheric pressure and thereby permitting a uniform pressure gradient through the water column beneath the cowl and facilitating improved flow conditioning.
A symphonic cowl 228 is attached to the downstream end of the apparatus. Secondary flow 190 through the turbine accommodates head drop across the apparatus. Frictional losses can occur through the intake to the turbines as the water enters the turbine. Offshore tidal barrages seek to concentrate the incident energy of a large cross-section of water flow by trapping the tidal inflow on a rising tide behind a containing wall and funnelling it out again through turbines of much smaller cross-sectional area, as in a conventional dam.
Dolor Neuropático Que Es
Where the apparatus is placed in a flow with a larger cross section than the apparatus the presence of free edges permits the primary flow to divert around the apparatus rather than passing through the pipes. This increase in the river depth is the low head driver of the apparatus. In order to meet this requirement the primary flow needs to decelerate smoothly through the diffuser section lying downstream of the venturi section to give pressure recovery back up towards the ambient free stream head.
A horizontal arrangement of venturi pipes can help isolate the induced low pressure in the venturi from the free surface of the primary flow. The turbine can be positioned low in the water, this increases the ambient operating pressure and helps suppress and performance degradation from cavitation over the blade surfaces. This embodiment is WO 2011/114155 PCT/GB2011/050523 19 particularly applicable for inland river systems, when coastal currents and tidal forces are not available to harness the energy from. They have been a number of proposals for converting current, wave or tidal flows into electricity as a non-polluting approach to power generation. The number of structures that are installed will depend on the environment and the amount of electricity that is required to be generated. Each chamber 172 is positioned to correspond with a horizontal pipe 160 extending from the vertical manifold 164. The number of chambers required will depend on the variation in water level that the pipes are exposed to.
Dolor Espalda Cáncer Pulmón
Energy losses through the venturi can occur as a result of reintegration of the secondary flow with the primary flow inside the venturi. The venturis defined between adjacent pipes acts as venturi pumps inducing flow from inside the first pipes through the holes so as to draw water through the flow conduit and drive a turbine connected to a generator. Pipes 100 for use in bi-directional flow 102a, 102b have a tapered downstream side 104 and upstream side 106, such that two diffusers sections 108a, 108b are defined between adjacent pipes 100 separated by the venturi section 110. Dolor muscular en espalda alta . The symmetrical shape of the pipes allows the entrance throat 108b of the venturi 110 to become the diffuser section when the direction of flow 102a is reversed 102b. The secondary flow 112a, 112b will join the primary flow 102a, 102b as it leaves the pipes 100 through the holes. The cross section shape of the pipe 70 has a short tapering convex upstream side 72 forming the flow passage 76 for the secondary flow path.
Dolor Espalda Media
A surface 184 is attached to each of the free ends of the modules on either side of the gap 198 to help inhibit by pass flow, while still maintaining an open passage in the structure. The buoyancy means may be provided in a section of the system and may be provided at the downstream side. The downstream end can comprise a flow control valve, the flow control valve providing a flow path between the downstream end of the element and the flow passage. Figure 17 shows a profile of a pipe 120 for use in a SMEC apparatus comprising perforations 122 in the trailing edge of the downstream side 124. Perforations 122 can be formed in the end of the downstream side 124 of the pipes and a flow control valve 126 can be located within the downstream side 124 to control flow of water from the boundary layer of the diffuser section into the flow passage 128. The flow control valve 126 can be used to draw water from the boundary layer of the diffuser section into the pipe 120 helping prevent or delay flow separation.
The outer surface of the pipes that defines the diffuser section can comprise a roughened area.
The profile of the upstream side and the downstream side can be substantially the same. A head drop from the upstream water surface head to the downstream water level is caused by the venturi effect. Previous systems for extracting energy from waves used the vertical movement of the water surface caused by the phase shift between the elliptical water particle paths along a wavelength. The outer surface of the pipes that defines the diffuser section can comprise a roughened area. In an embodiment having vertical elements, the apparatus can further comprise at least one horizontal septum extending between adjacent elements. The apparatus can further comprise a syphonic cowl extending out from the downstream side of the apparatus. In one embodiment the profile of the front end of the upstream side is substantially V-shaped.
In one embodiment each of the SMEC apparatus can be formed as modules and positioned long the length of the river or other body of water, such as an estuary, fjord, channel. Figures 21, 22, and 23 show a further embodiment of the SMEC apparatus. Figure 19 shows a cross section view of a part of an apparatus having vertical pipes 140 connected to a horizontal manifold 142. In a further embodiment of the invention each pipe 140 is divided into a plurality of chambers 144 arranged vertically along the length of the pipe.
The word “spectral” signifies that energy is extracted from any water movement between the pipes irrespective of the frequency at which the ambient wave spectrum is expected to peak. It is not necessary that all venturi pipes are associated with an individual chamber. Positioning the generator above the water surfaces reduces the chance of water coming into contact with any electrical machinery.
- Es una cefalea primaria
- Tener problemas con la custodia de los hijos
- Jugo de zanahorias, remolacha y manzana
- El estómago / píloro
The distance between each structure can be sufficient such that the flow level of the river where an upstream structure is to be positioned is substantially unaffected by any downstream SMEC. Each structure 200 is positioned across the width of the river perpendicular to the direction of the flow 204 of water and upstream and/or downstream of a further module. In order to reduce the effect of edge losses the apparatus can run across the entire body of moving water, such as from bank to bank of a river or from one coast to another coast. In another embodiment of the invention when the apparatus comprises horizontal pipes 160, the vertical manifold 164 can be segmented. Materials can include mild steel, stainless steel, glass reinforced plastic, polycarbonate, concrete and/or plywood on various different real. Terapia dolor de espalda . The closure mechanism may be a valve and/or a gate. The vertical septums may help minimise the size of vortexes in the horizontal plane between adjacent elements.