Gas is pulled into a pressure relief device coupled to the drive pipe, without introducing water into the pressure relief device, using the negative pressure. These calculations ignore the potential benefit of designing the negative pressure relief riser section 28 so as to minimize water level change during the down stroke noting that water level changes decrease as riser diameter increases. Energy recovery can be enhanced further by using the potential energy of the air under vacuum present in the riser section 28 at the end of the deceleration phase. If the drive valve position 18 is moved towards the discharge end of the drive pipe, e.g., toward the diverging cone section 16, the accelerated water upstream of the drive valve 18 will cause a pressure surge (i.e., water hammer) when the drive pipe valve 18 is closed.
Dolor De Cabeza
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION The general principle which underlies the present invention is the conversion of potential energy into mechanical energy by accelerating a relatively large mass of water in a drive pipe section and then decelerating the water using a valve and a negative pressure relief system. The system uses the negative pressure to pull gas to power a turbine. This eliminates the need for motors, pumps and power control systems used in conventional water pumping stations thereby providing for a savings in cost and an increase in energy transfer efficiency. It will be apparent to one of ordinary skill in the art that varying the diameters of the various conduits, pipes, vacuum tank volumes and head tank volumes will increase or decrease the performance of the hydropower generator system. An advantage of minimizing head requirements is the increase in the number of potential application sites while, in some cases, eliminating the need for permanent water control structures such as dams.
Dolor De Hombro
Hence a low pressure water supply (H) application can generate air pressure differentials that exceed an equivalent water height of 32 feet. Therefore, an additional advantage of the present invention concerns circumventing the problem of excessive shear, turbulence, flow separation and gas supersaturation by developing equipment capable of economically recovering energy from water in low head applications. An additional feature of the present invention concerns the control of vacuum pressure generated so as to maintain pressure differentials that allows for economical energy recovery while also minimizing effects on entrained fish. The present invention relates to a hydropower conversion method and system, and in particular, to a system and method of using a hydraulic gradient to create a temporary negative pressure for use in operating a pneumatic device.
However, dams used in conventional hydroelectric power systems have been linked to negative physical, chemical and biological effects on the bodies of water to which these dams are disposed. 3a- 3 c, depicted therein is a hydroelectric generator 310 which operates without the use of a dam. Although the invention has been described above in relation to preferred embodiments thereof, it will be understood by those skilled in the art that variations and modifications can be effected in these preferred embodiments without departing from the scope and spirit of the invention. 6. It will be readily apparent to one of ordinary skill that a valve closed duration of about 60% of the flow period (the ratio of the duration the valve is closed to the duration the valve is opened) maximized the performance of the hydropower conversion system in terms of reducing the time it takes to achieve a desired vacuum.
The air turbine 46 is coupled to a device requiring power input such as an electrical generator 48. Upon reaching the desired level of energy recovery, the drive pipe valve 18 is re-opened again for a short period of time, the intake check valve 36 is closed or closes given pressure differential (described below), and water again is accelerated in the drive pipe 12, thereby allowing the process to be repeated.
- Falta de aire
- Presión con dedos (1, 2,…5)
- Independent Generators
- Estimular la circulación sanguínea y el metabolismo
- Parálisis en la cara- Dificultad con el lenguaje (afasia)- Debilidad en los brazos
This is equivalent to 78 watts of power generated constantly throughout a 24-hour period. Therefore, in spite of the recently developed designs, there is still a need for an efficient and economical low-head power conversion system that minimizes damage to the environment. Dolor de gluteos y espalda baja . The resultant temperature drop of the gas is used to chill a cooling fluid for refrigeration. The use of gas (e.g., air) combined with elevated pressure drops provides for a dramatic reduction in the size and associated cost of the turbine. Expansion of gas from atmospheric pressure to subatmospheric pressure will result in gas cooling due to the Joule-Thompson effect. However, if a dam is required, the dam height requirement will be within the range of low-head inflatable dam structures available commercially at relatively low cost. The maximum vacuum levels achieved will be limited by water vaporization pressures that are temperature dependent but can approach-14 psig. Using the preceding example of a 2″ diameter by a 100 foot long pipe section operated at a water velocity of 10 ft/s, a P1of −10 psig and a P2 of zero, the head (H) required to establish the desired velocity is about 20 feet.