If Differential Pressure Is Directed Outwardly

Cinco consejos para evitar el dolor de espalda Oil discharged through line 66 by booster pump 82 will be under some positive pressure because the weight of the oil column in the oil storage chamber and oil line has a lower specific gravity than the balancing water column maintained in line 67 by the header tank 72. The booster pump 82 provides a rapid loading rate to an off-shore tanker and since pump 82 is working against a low pressure head its power requirement is small. 3,470,836 a subsea well head structure provides an elongated hull not used for oil storage but to provide a central passageway through which a riser extends, the riser having a float to maintain the riser under suitable tension. If the distance “K” between the center of buoyancy “B” and center of gravity “G” is small the spar buoy will have greater inclination in response to wind and sea current forces but the response to wave action will be reduced.

In the selection of the relationship between the center of buoyancy and center of gravity it will be understood that if the distance “K” between the center of buoyancy “B” and center of gravity “G” is great the spar buoy will be very resistant to pitch and roll moments arising from winds and sea currents but will have a relatively short natural period so that dynamic motions caused by waves may be large. If the platform is maintained at constant draft, the elevation of the platform itself, and also the upper ends of the flexible riser connections, will vary due to the variations in the mean sea level, because of tides or wind surge, upon which are superimposed heave motions due to waves. Also under consideration is the oscillation or pitch of the platform due to wave effects which may be compared to and is an example of a spring-mass system excited by periodic forces.

Tipos De Dolor De Espalda

Such facilities include necessary pumps and valves etc for controlling the flow of variable ballast and the volume of oil and water in the oil storage chamber 41. Some of the latter equipment may be connected to equipment on the production deck as described later. Such buoyancy means 39 is permanent and in this example may include a pressure-resistant closed-cell foam material occupying a sufficient volume of the hull means at the top to provide with the fixed ballast 38 vertical positioning of the hull means in the sea water. 6 and operation of the storage and load-out system the water level in header tank 72 may be maintained at a constant elevation of, for example, about 30 meters above sea level. As oil is fed into the storage chamber spaces, the water below the oil and being displaced will rise up line 67 to the header tank and may be discharged through the separators and to the sea through line 75. When oil is being loaded to the off-shore tanker, water is pumped into the header tank at a volumetric rate corresponding to the rate of loading.

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1.0) as oil is introduced into the top of the chamber 41 the same volume of water is withdrawn from the bottom of tank 41 by a water header line 67. The water header line 67 communicates with a header tank 72 located on the production deck and connected to an oil water separator 73. Remedios caseros para dolor de espalda fuerte . The separator 73 is connected through valve 74 to a discharge line 75 which discharges the separated water into the sea. 3,921,557 a flexible riser means extends through a central passageway of a spar buoy type hull, the riser being provided with tensioning means and the hull providing storage for oil. SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION The present invention contemplates a novel spar buoy construction which provides oil storage of desired capacity, the spar buoy construction supporting a production deck for suitable production facilities, and the construction providing a connection to a riser system from a multiple well head sea floor installation, the construction providing suitable tension for the riser lines which extend through the spar buoy construction.