In one particularly preferred embodiment, the arrays define a elongate fence of first and second pipes. The upper ropes 120 can be more flexible than the manifold 122, ensuring an inclination of the pipes, helping present a desirable elliptical flowpath to the tidal or current flow through the venturi pipes. For example, while the pipes in the examples given above are essentially circular in cross-section, it is also possible to use pipes that are elliptical in the direction of flow or have other profiles to reduce turbulence. In general, wave action will also cause water particle flows between the bars at an angle, giving an elliptical venturi profile. Another problem arises from the fact that the direction of flow often changes direction by 180° or more, such as in tidal flows or in a typical wave. One common problem for all these wave or flow systems is to address a sufficiently large cross-section of the ocean for power generation to be possible on an industrial scale.
- Para empezar, lava las hojas de orégano y deja que se sequen
- Poner la palma hacia arriba o hacia abajo, 10 veces
- Rigidez en la espalda
- Medicamentos para aliviar el dolor y la hinchazón
- Enrojecimiento de la piel, especialmente en la cara
A further embodiment of the invention uses the energy generated to drive conventional reverse-osmosis desalination equipment, with the fresh water exported by pipeline-this avoids that traditional problem of getting access to unsilted open sea water and generating the power needed for the high-pressure pumps these units need, in undeveloped coastal sites. BACKGROUND ART There have been many proposals for converting wave or tidal flows into electricity as a non-polluting approach to power generation. In particular, the invention provides apparatus for generating electricity using flows such as waves, tides or currents in a body of water. TECHNICAL FIELD This invention relates to systems for converting wave, tidal or current energy in a body of water into a more useful form of energy. Preferably, means are provided for adjusting the air pressure in the column so as to fine-tune the air volume.
Dolor Muscular Antebrazo
The columns on which the generators sit can be open-bottomed so that they fill with water from the lower chord, with a closed air volume above the water surface inside the column. While the system may not generally have high thermodynamic efficiency, it can be very large and very robust, with all the electrical generation up out of the water so as to be able to work consistently and reliably in all conditions. Tengo dolor en la parte baja de la espalda . In particular, the invention seeks to provide a system that is inherently very large and not very susceptible to variations of flow direction, strength and frequency. FIGS. 13-15 show an embodiment that achieves this, the reservoir being formed from a reinforced concrete structures 125 comprising hollow chambers 126 formed in the base 128 and optionally, in the walls 130, that are air-filled during tow-out (FIG. FIGS. 1 and 2 show a plan views of part of a pipe arrangement to demonstrate the principle of operation.
The pipe sections 50, 52 are mounted on a triangular frame structure 62 which is provided with buoyant end members 64 and a buoyant top chord member 66 which allow the apparatus to float in the water with only the upper part 56 at or above the water surface 68. The two lower chord members 70 a, 70 b constitute manifolds to which the first pipes 58 a, 58 b are connected such that water can flow therebetween. 9 and comprises two arrays of pipes forming a pair of “fences” 110 a, 110 b that are connected at one end to a common structure (in this case a large, concrete reservoir 112 as will be described further below) and the other ends spaced apart and connected to piles 114 to form a V-shape, to “catch” the tidal or current flow as it spreads out from the middle third of the upstream flow.
The valves 14 a, 15 a comprise long, flexible flaps secured by respective retaining lips 16 a, 17 a on the outside of the pipe 10, the flaps 14 a, 15 a being secured such that they extend towards each other overlying the respective adjacent row of holes 12 a, 13 a. X (FIG. 2) is forced between the first and second pipes 10, 11 where space is more restricted Z. The effect of this flow restriction is to accelerate the water leading to a drop in pressure, i.e. The arrangement comprises arrays of first and second pipes 10, 11. The pipes in each array are arranged in a parallel spaced, side-by-side array, all pipes of an array lying in essentially the same plane (indicated X10-X10 and X11-X11 respectively). The pipes forming the arrays are typically connected flexibly such that the fence can deform from a planar arrangement under the effect of tidal or current flow.
Dolor Muscular Cadera
The arrangement of first and second pipes preferably comprises arrays of first and second pipes arranged in a parallel, spaced planar array. FIGS. 1 and 2) and arranged such that the first pipes 58 a, 58 b are one the outside. Where the impeller and generator are so separated, the generator can be connected to the impeller by means of a long drive shaft. By having the top chord lying in the still water surface, however, much of the surplus energy of storm waves can be allowed to pass over the structure without overloading the system. One form of non-return valve comprises a flap of flexible material secured to the outside of the first pipe and extending over at least one hole, such that, in use, the induced flow lifts the flap off the hole and allows outward flow but reverse flow pushes the flap against the hole and prevents flow therethrough.
Where the series of holes comprises a pair of parallel, symmetrical rows of holes, a particularly preferred form of flap arrangement comprises a separate flap arrangement extending over each row of holes. It is particularly preferred that the series of holes comprises a pair of parallel, symmetrical rows of holes. In one such case, a pair of fences can be provided, one end of each fence being connected at a common location and the other ends being spaced apart such that the fences from a V shape. Dolor de espalda parte baja causas . Preferably, the arrangement of first and second pipes comprises first and second sections inclined towards each other towards their upper ends. Other uses can be to use the local generation of electricity to power local generation of hydrogen by electrolysis.
A valve 134 can be provided to allow venting of the chambers. A reservoir can be provided at the common location to which the fences are connected, the outlet of the flow conduits feeding into the reservoir. The pipes 22 extend between vertical manifold pipes 24, the interior of the first pipes communicating with the interior of the vertical manifold pipes 24. The vertical manifold pipes 24 are all connected to a common manifold 26 which runs along the bottom of the section 20. The end vertical manifolds comprise support columns 28 which carry a flow conduit 30 housing an impeller (not shown) at its lower end. Preferably, the open end of the V faces a principal direction of tide or current flow. 14) but flooded during operation to sit on the sea bed 131 (FIG. The sections 20 are mounted on the sea bed between support structures 34. The sections 20 can be installed from a barge or platform 36 which can be removed once the installation is complete.
Dolores Musculares Y Fiebre
FIG. 4 shows an embodiment of the invention being installed on the sea bed. Consequently, water is drawn through the flow conduit 30 and into the manifold 26, driving the impeller and hence powering the generator module 32. Vertical variations in flow can cause lower pressures to be generated in some pipes than others. The apparatus comprises a series of pipe sections 20 comprising interleaved, planar arrays of first and second pipes shown generally at 22, the first and second pipes being aligned substantially horizontally and the arrays having a substantially vertical plane. It is preferred that non-return valves are provided at the holes such that water can flow through the holes out of the first pipes but not through the holes into the first pipes.