According to this set of equations it can be understood that a change in the rate of decrease of the helical pitch will result in an increase or decrease in the torsional forces and power output. As discussed above, various parameters of the rotor and blade shape can be varied depending on the purpose of the rotor and the operating conditions that it will be exposed to, such as flow rate and so on. The conic helix can be any suitable shape that allows for a three dimensional curve with an increasing radius and decreasing pitch as described above. Viewed from a third aspect, the invention provides a method of manufacturing a rotor comprising at least one blade arranged to rotate about an axis of rotation, the method comprising: defining an inner conic helix and an outer conic helix, the conic helixes each having a pitch that decreases as the radius of the helix increases; and forming the blade(s) as a surface extending between inner and outer conic helixes.
The rotor hence preferably includes inner and outer surfaces enclosing the blades, which may be the inner and outer generally conical surfaces of revolution corresponding to the paths of the conic helixes. Or, some of the liquid flow may be directed towards the bearings and heat exchangers of electrical components and used as coolant in demanding applications. In some embodiments, as in Figures 4A to SB the increasing radius of either conic helix may increase at greater or lesser rates to form a pair of non-parallel conic helixes. The parameters discussed above, including the radius of the conic helix, pitch of the conic helixes and the relative increase in radius of the inner and outer conic helixes are preferably varied linearly along the length of the rotor. As the body of fluid flows through the specially shaped rotor and its complicated flow passages it is constantly forced to change direction due to the shape of the blades and the decreasing helical pitch from inlet to outlet which results in an increasing helical frequency, thereby resulting in a continuous rate of change of momentum.
The inlet geometry of the rotor housing may be designed to increase the linear velocity of the liquid flow as it enters the rotor entrance through use of a convergent section or some other geometry. Figure 10 shows an embodiment of a two-stage rotor apparatus that may function as a tidal turbine with a pair of counter-rotating rotors 7, 8 installed in a housing 9 along a common longitudinal axis 4. The housing 9 is shown in cross-section and the rotors 7, 8 are shown in partial cross-section. In situations where the flow direction reverses prior art arrangements might be provided with means to re-align with the new flow direction, such as a turret mounting or a tethered float in a flow or a change in blade angle by some means.
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- LABRADOR, F. J. (2008).Técnicas de modificación de conducta. Madrid. Pirámide
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Since the power available from the liquid flow is proportional to the cube of the liquid flow velocity, this provides an effective means of increasing the amount of available energy. Dolor muscular en las nalgas . The connection between generator and either rim can be made with simple gearing or using a runner wheel or some other means. The housing may also enclose generator parts, control systems and suchlike. The rotor housing may be used to enhance the performance of the rotors. The inner and outer conic helix may be based on the same form of spiral or curve, with different initial and final radii. This ensures maximum bidirectionality since an identical fluid flow can enter the two-stage rotor apparatus from either end with the same resulting power take off. Fluid flow in either direction would be efficiently converted into rotational movement and, in accordance with the preferred embodiment of the rotor, converted into electrical power by generators.
In the embodiments described above, for reasons of simplicity, the underlying spiral is based upon an Archimedean spiral when there is a linear increase in radius r with the polar coordinate 0. However, it is equally feasible to construct the rotor by way of a non-linear increase in inner and outer radii r with the polar coordinate 0 through the use of a different underlying mathematical spiral such as Archimedean, Euler, Fibonacci, Hyperbolic, Lituus, Logarithmic, Theodorus or any other known spiral having varying radius r as a function of the polar coordinate 0 but also having a third variable, the length I, varying also as function of the polar coordinate 0. The use of a Archimedean spiral with linear increase in the radii r with the polar coordinate 0 provides a conic helix formed about a straight sided frustocone as shown in the Figures.
When the inner conic helix radius increases at a faster rate than the outer conic helix radius, the arbitrary cross sectional areas increase at a slower rate. The inner conic helix may increase in radius at a slower rate than the increase in radius of the outer conic helix in order to reduce or restrict the hydrodynamic reaction forces and torsional forces produced by the rotor.
Dolor Sordo Profundo Y Continuo
The following set of equations consider the hydrodynamic reaction forces and torques generated. Fluid entering parallel to the longitudinal axis and head-on to the larger helical pitch end would meet less of a resistance and would be gently guided into the rotor. Figures 6A and 6B show a further variation which has parallel in net and outer cones as in Figures 1 and 2, but in which the helical pitch decreases at a slower rate than the previously described embodiments.
Dolor Muscular Cadera
The underlying mathematical spiral of the conic helix can be based on Archimedean, Euler, Fibonacci, Hyperbolic, Lituus, Logarithmic, Theodorus or any other known spiral having varying radius r as a function of the polar coordinate 0 but also having a third variable, the length I, varying also as function of the polar coordinate e. Any suitable shape of housing may be used. For larger cross-flow deviations, the rotor housing may have a steering and suspension system and include fins, gearing and buoyancy control devices in order for it to adjust its position within a flow field in order to optimise performance or to surface for maintenance purposes if submerged in a liquid stream. Figure 11 shows a cross-section of an alternative embodiment of a two-stage rotor apparatus installed in a housing 9. Ejercicio para el dolor de espalda . In the embodiment shown in Figure 11, in contrast to the Figure 10 arrangement the generators 13 are placed within the inner cone instead of outside the outer cone.
Preferably the method comprises use of the two-stage rotor apparatus to produce energy from a tidal flow, and more preferably use of the rotor to produce electrical energy from the tidal flow. Figures 2A and 26 depict the rotor of Figures IA and 16 with outer peripheral rim 1 partially hidden for clarity. Alternatively, it would be possible for the blade to be mounted to just one of the outer rim and inner surface, with the other of the outer rim or the inner surface remaining fixed.
Dolores Musculares Por Ansiedad
However, non-linear variations of radius, pitch and relative radius would also be possible. Thus, in the second rotor the fluid flow direction may enter from the smaller helical pitch end and flow towards the larger helical pitch end. This presents a significant advantage, since, a complicated gearbox is not required representing a significant saving in expense and complexity. If a smaller number of magnets were used then additional electronic equipment would be required to condition the electrical signal to match the electrical grid. Rotors 7,8 in two housings 9 as shown in Figures 10 or 11 are installed on a tower structure that can be installed on the sea bed.
Dolor Sordo En El Pecho
However, in tidal turbine applications, to reduce the danger to aquatic life, the gap in between the two rotors may be increased to reduce the chopping effect between rotors. A liquid flow may be induced between the two reservoirs as a consequence of externally applied natural or man-made forces. For instance, secondary fluid flows may be generated upstream or downstream of an obstacle placed in a naturally occurring fluid flow such as a dam in a river. For a low speed fluid flow the generator connection point can be made at the higher linear velocity end, this being at the larger diameter end of the rotor. Figures 1A and I B depict an embodiment of a rotor including an outer peripheral rim 1, blades 2 and inner peripheral surface 3. The rotor can be used to turn the flow of a liquid into rotational movement that can then be used to generate electricity.
Preferably the inner and outer conic helix also extend for about the same axial length along the direction of the axis of rotation of the rotor. Dolor en la parte baja derecha de la espalda . The connection may be curved, for example, a concave surface may be used to increase the surface area along the surface of the specially shaped rotor blade in order to spread the resulting hydrodynamic forces over a larger area and reduce internal stresses.