Similar to the previous aspect, by concentrating wave energy from a width greater than the width of the wave energy absorber itself the energy absorbed from each wave crest is increased without increasing the size of the wave energy absorber itself. Preferably a large number of paddle units are used in parallel to smooth the delivery of water to the accumulator 55 or desalination equipment 73. The paddles may also be aligned so they collectively act as a breakwater reducing the size and intensity of the waves that approach the shore. The remainder of the equipment illustrated in Figure 13a can be located in the front pointed tip 5 of the device, with a low pressure pipe delivering desalinated water ashore.
In an embodiment, the convex second surface has a cross-sectional profile that additionally extends to a generally pointed tip at the vertical axis of symmetry of the device. In one embodiment, the paddle is hinged about either of an upper or a lower end of the paddle and adapted to rotate backwards and forwards about the hinge in response to the movement of incoming waves. In this embodiment, the amount of wave energy that can be captured by the paddle for each wave crest is increased by channelling the wave on either side of the paddle towards the paddle surface using a wave concentrator that is preferably stationary relative to the incoming waves. This flat profile may be necessary for connection to some base devices. Additionally, having a generally flat profile in an attachment point adjacent the sea bed is easier to seal to restrict flow of water beneath the paddle and preventing energy from being lost.
This decreases drag. Additionally, the concave first surface of the device is preferably also curved to connect smoothly with the shelf. The independent multipart design also increases flexibility in manufacture and deployment, through the use of smaller, individual but combinable components. A flexible joint would also assist in moving the paddle relative to the energy conversion apparatus for ease of maintenance and installation. Dificultad para respirar y dolor de espalda . One drawback of the convex forward face 12 is that skin friction and drag due to flow parallel to the surface is increased, though this can be expected to be relatively small for the velocities concerned. Preferably, therefore, the paddle should not extend below the point where the speed of the bottom tip of the paddle exceeds the particle velocities within the incoming waves at that depth. However, the paddle is preferably not entirely submerged and waves preferably should not be able to escape over the top of the paddle (“overtopping”) since this would result in energy being lost.
Dolor Espalda Y Abdomen
Γη very extreme seas the paddles should be withdrawn from the water surface, either by lifting it out of the water or lowering it against the seabed. The forward-pointing tip 4 further improves laminar flow around the paddle, which further enhances the water mobilisation effect described in connection with Figure 1 above. The paddle illustrated in Figure 10c includes backward facing straight extensions 27 to the tips 2 which extend in a direction generally parallel to the incident waves to limit egress of water around the edges of the paddle. If other constraints (such as weight or variable seas) require the depth to be less than about 1/16 of the incident wavelength, the tips 2 can be extended in the forward direction, parallel to the direction of wave travel, to limit the effects of egress. Figure lOe shows a forward-pointing tip 4 design similar to the second embodiment described above but formed from a single-piece panel such that the backward face 11 has the same profile as the forward face 12. Figure lOf shows an alternative to lOe with a blunted forward tip 4 for increased structural strength at the tip.
Each test paddle had width and height of exactly lm, such that the projected area towards the incident waves was the same. This fifth embodiment is identical to the first embodiment except that the curved backward 11 and forward surfaces 12 of the paddle do not taper to a flat edge, but instead have a constant curvature along the height of the paddle.
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Other embodiments of the invention may have a constant curvature along parts of the height of the paddle and portions where the curvature changes along the height of the paddle. Figures 10a to lOp illustrate a range of different paddle 24 curvatures or cross-sections that may be used in embodiments of the present invention. However, the present invention is not limited to these particular arrangements. Figures 6a and 6b are schematic plan and 3D side elevation views, respectively, of a sixth wave paddle embodying the present invention. These shelves increase power absorption, particularly when they are located at or near the top and/or bottom of the device to prevent water overtopping or flowing underneath it, respectively, and provide additional structural strength. In some embodiments, the centre of the paddle may be higher than the edges, particularly when the paddle is wide, to prevent overtopping by the incident waves as they are focussed towards the centre, while minimising the use of material at the edges.