Additional folds can be added at varying locations (varying distances from the leading edge and at locations interspersed throughout the sheet) to induce curvature to avoid non preferred oscillations. When sheet 20 oscillates in the preferred fundamental mode with large oscillation, tensioner 10 traverses path 31, and is constrained by constraint surface 100. Above or below (or above and below) in the Z direction from the constraint surface 100 reside geared pinions with teeth extending in the X-Y direction. Each duct tape piece taping a pinched fold regions of curved sheet 10, and fold lines 57, 58, and 59. Preferably, pinched folds are constrained on both sides of the sheet, such as by tape stitching, or glue. It should be noted that this 130 inch long sheet device was constructed to test the scaling to large size after fabrication and testing of many smaller devices.
See Fig. 5. These results show the breadth of size of fold, and hence curvature, over which preferred oscillation in the fundamental mode occurs, and other factors such as front edge concavity and tensioning line tension, upon oscillations. Constraints 42, 43 indicate the fixing of the ends of the sheet along the leading edge of the sheet to the tensioner 10. Leading edge 50 is shown as linear. 1 correspond to the X, Y, and Z directions of the tensioner 10 and curved sheet 20, discussed in the remainder of the figures. Constraints affect the modes of oscillation in a sheet exposed to fluid flow. In water, due its higher density, and other liquids, the length of along the flow direction of the sheet can be much shorter that in air, to obtain the same total force on the sheet.
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It may be that this excessive front edge tension required to initiate oscillations in the preferred mode in the leading edge contributed to the failure of complete damping of trailing edge non preferred oscillations. Estiramientos para el dolor lumbar . Initially, without any tension in the leading edge, device did not oscillate. The frequency of oscillation in the X-Z plane is 2 times fo, 2fo. The magnitude of oscillation in the X-Z plane (along the fluid flow direction) is smaller than in the Y-Z plane (perpendicular to the fluid flow direction). 9 each of which is coupled to a different fluid oscillating device for converting fluid flow to useful energy. Fig. 22 shows an alternative energy conversion device for converting motion in tensioner 10 to output voltage or electrical energy V. Fig. Constraint surface 100 forms an aperture through which tensioner 10 passes.
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Constraint surface 100 forms a bilobal structure having two approximately circular or oval regions connecting through a neck region. 5 feet. All of these 5 foot devices oscillated in the preferred fundamental mode, except for those having a convex leading edge. 1, energy is transferred from the fluid flow field 30 to the curved sheet structure 14. Curved sheet structure 14 comprises curved sheet 20 and tensioner or tensioning line 10. Tension in the tensioner varies periodically with the frequencies of the oscillation. Generally, more than 50 percent of the surface area of a curved sheet structure must have curvature pointing away from the same side of the sheet in order for a fluid flow to induce the preferred mode oscillation in the curved sheet structure. Bulto debajo de la rodilla con dolor . Specifically, one half the fluid density times the square of the velocity times a shape factor. Experiments using various polymer based sheets having areas ranging from about one hundredth of a square meter to a few square meters and sheet material having a thickness of a few thousandths of an inch to a about a hundredth of an inch, and various curvatures in the sheet, resulting in a cutoff wind velocity below which oscillation would not occur being on the order of a few tenths to about 2 miles per hour.
Young’s modulus for sheet materials contemplated for the sheets of this invention are in the range of about 0.01 to 10.0 Giga Pascals (about 1500 to about 1,400,000 pounds per square inch). 0.00125; these are the examples in which CR did not depend upon DTF). 24 in which the magnet M resides inside a hollow in the pole 2401. In this alternative, pole 2401 is hollow. In addition, about an axis extending along the extended direction of a fixed wing are known to occur in response to fluid flow over the wing, for certain wing configurations.
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The leading edge oscillates in a sideways direction, which sideways direction is (1) perpendicular to the fluid flow and (2) perpendicular to a line connecting the two fixed points. Both the length of the sheet along the fluid flow direction and the length of the sheet perpendicular to the fluid flow direction may be increased to provide for an increased oscillating tension in the tensioner, and the strength of the tensioner may be increased. The energy converter 30 converts the oscillations in position or tension of the tensioner 10 into one of: reciprocating linear motion; circular motion; or voltage and current. As sheet 20 oscillates in the preferred fundamental mode, it sends traveling waves down tensioning line 192 which provide both oscillating tension and traveling wave motion of line 192. Energy converter 30 converts the energy in the traveling waves to Eout in one of the same manner as noted herein above or described in the publications incorporated herein by reference.
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This mechanism uses a spring 80 between fixed point P, magnet M, and tensioner 10. Spring 80 is connected to the lower end of tensioner 10. Spring 80 provides tension pulling tensioner 10 down. The rod was rotatably coupled to the tensioning line in that it could swivel about the tensioning line.
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Fig. 8 illustrates one mechanism used to convert linear oscillation of the tensioning line to electrical power. The sheet must have sufficient flexibility so that the curvature in this direction flips sign during fundamental mode oscillation. Note specifically, the sheet structure, in the form of a sheet or web, has minimal resistance to bending moments out of the plane and therefore a curvature present in absence of all external forces my be deformed by the presence of gravity, for example in the case where gravity forced the sheet onto the ground. It appears that this device failed to oscillate because application of tension to the tensioning line along the leading edge, that is the front surface of the curved sheet device, resulted in slack in the rear surface.
18B shows tension applied to tensioner 10 expanding slack regions 185, 186, 187, 188. This causes expansive stress to leading edge 50 lengthening leading edge 50 relative to trailing edge 60. This causes strain in the remainder of sheet 20 resulting in curvature in both X and Z directions. All of the pinions 93 are coupled to a single rotating shaft 110. Fig.
Coupling induces the parallel curved sheets to oscillate in phase and frequency, allowing combination of tensions in their tensioners into a single line under the combined tension in which the tension in this single line oscillates with the combined tension of the individual lines. Slack in the rear surface is contrary to the requirement for positive curvature for filtering out other than the preferred fundamental mode. Dolor lumbar ciclismo . That is, there are substantially no inversions or saddle points in the curvature of the sheet.
Only novel devices are specified in the drawing in this application.
Define Depth To Fold, DTF, to be the length from the leading edge of the sheet to the point line parallel to the leading edge where folds were made. Accordingly, a vertical or nearly vertical tensioner line 10 is preferred. Increasing tension in the tensioner tends to damp the higher order oscillations along the front edge. In this manner the hemp was secured inside the leading edge in a passageway extending the length of the sheet. Only novel devices are specified in the drawing in this application. The existence of two fixed points constraining an end of the tensioner to be immobile is not essential and not present in many of the energy conversion device alternatives. That tension is on average equal to tension in tensioner 10 pulling tensioner 10 up.
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That is, the total curvature between the front edge and the back edge, and the total curvature between to top side and the bottom side, of the sheet, required to provide the desired oscillation mode, should be independent of scale of the sheet. Observations show that the leading edge of the sheet performs periodic oscillation in both the sideways direction, and in the direction of fluid flow, as shown in Figs.