The Wells reaction turbine comprises a series of rectangular airfoil-shaped blades arranged concentrically to extend from a rotatable shaft, as shown in FIG. 4 and 5. The turbine comprises inflow and outflow fluid channels 4, 6, a turbine chamber 8, and a working wheel 10 having a plurality of airfoil-shaped turbine blades 12 supported for rotation on a rotatable shaft 14 by one or more turbine blade support members 16. The airfoil-shaped blades may be formed from any suitable material, such as a steel or plastic material. The helical turbine is particularly suitable for hydro applications where strong water currents develop, and may be installed on a vessel, as discussed further below, or in the body of any low head dam in a river. In addition, any suitable number of radial spokes 110 may be provided which extend perpendicularly from the rotatable shaft to each blade at spaced intervals. The housing 136 has front and back openings 138 therein to allow the current flow 130 to pass through the housing 136 and past the turbine blades 132. The housing may be mounted to the pontoons 126, 128 in any suitable manner.
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18 through 20, although any type of vessel may be used. Alternatively, the blade support members may comprise other configurations, such as a single central disc, radial spokes alone, or the like. Thus, when one set of gates is open, water enters one chamber from the upstream flow and exits the other chamber into the downstream flow. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION Hydro-pneumatic power systems are used for generating power from the tidal or current motion of water in oceans, bays, and rivers. In a hydro application, the turbine is mounted in a vessel located in a strong current of 5 feet per second or greater, such as in a tidal channel. 18-20 in an application in which power may be generated from a water current flow having a sufficiently strong and, in many cases, reversible velocity of at least 5 feet per second, such as in some tidal estuaries where there is no water head differential.
The continuous helical blades provide a continuous speed of rotation uninterrupted by accelerations and decelerations that accompany prior art turbines, such as the Darrieus turbine, as the blades pass the least and most efficient thrust zones. Either complex valving to redirect the air flow into a single directional stream prior to driving the turbine or a unidirectional air turbine, that is, one capable of providing unidirectional rotation from bidirectional air flow, is required. Its configuration is also complex and expensive to manufacture. Dolor lumbar despues de dormir . The bottom point 66 is also angularly offset in the direction of rotation from the axis 58 through the center of rotation of the turbine and perpendicular to the fluid flow by an angle φ’. The reaction turbine of the present invention may also be used in wind and wave power systems to harness the energy of the wind and waves. DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION A reaction turbine 2 according to the present invention is shown in FIGS.
In this manner, a choke situation is obviated.
The reaction turbine of the present invention is shown in FIG. The delta blades 82 of the present invention eliminate this problem, because the thickest part of the blade occurs near the nose 88, which presents the least transverse blade width to the flow. In this manner, a choke situation is obviated. 5. A choke situation does not arise, because only a single point or a few points of the leading edge of each blade pass the line 56′, 66′ of minimal clearance at a time. An additional embodiment of the invention, a modification of the blade shown in FIG. The blades are attached by blade support members 108 which may comprise parallel, circular discs which are fixedly mounted in spaced relation on the rotatable shaft 14 near each of the opposed side walls 22, 24 and in the middle. Alternatively, a housing may be provided, but the offset circular configuration provided by the elevational changes in the top and bottom walls of the turbine chamber, as described above, may be omitted.
4 and 6. Specifically, the top wall 26 comprises a first curved section 52 and a second curved section 54. Preferably the curvature comprises a circular arc. 5. A similar line (not shown) is present on the top wall. Specifically, the top and bottom walls of the channel comprise two circular sections in a plane parallel to the direction of fluid flow.
Dolores Musculares Causas
The blades 12 are mounted at the outermost diameter of the circular discs 16 and are generally oriented to lie along a circle defined by the outer diameter of the discs such that the chord of each airfoil generally forms the chord of an arc of the circle. Dolor de rodilla al doblar la pierna . FIG. 5 is cross-sectional view along line V–V of the turbine of FIG. FIG. 19 is a frontal view of the system of FIG. When the fluid flow is reversed, as in FIG. In one embodiment, the top and bottom walls also-incorporate a V-shaped or other linear or curvilinear-shaped configuration in a plane perpendicular to the direction of air flow to smooth and direct the flow of fluid to the blades. 13, these components cancel each other out, thereby minimizing wear on the shaft bearings. Each chamber contains an air space above the water surface.
The chambers are interconnected to each other by a channel or duct through which the air may flow. For gas turbine applications under ultra low head pressure fluid flow, the turbine can readily rotate at speeds of 1800 or 3600 rpm, the speeds at which conventional industrial generators typically operate, and can achieve efficiencies higher than the other turbines discussed. 7 through 10. As can be seen in FIG. Thus, a need still exists for a quiet, efficient, simple, unidirectional reaction turbine that can operate at high speeds without gearing multiplication. It will be appreciated that in actuality the efficiency of the thrust varies continuously from a minimum at the top to a maximum at the midpoint to a minimum at the bottom, with no abrupt break therebetween.
5, the channel 20 has a rectangular cross-sectional configuration near the turbine, rather than the V-shaped top and bottom walls as shown in FIG. Since the rotation at the outer circumference of the turbine rotor is faster than the fluid flow, the flow tends to twist in the channel in the direction of the turbine’s rotation. The blades are mounted to extend radially from the rotatable shaft and rotate in a plane perpendicular to the direction of fluid flow. Dolor de espalda sintomas . During the air flow cycle, the air flows in a first direction and the speed of the air increases to a maximum. 5, or may have a concave curvature to provide greater flow of fluid to the blades if desired. In addition, with the helical configuration, the elevational changes of the top and bottom walls may be eliminated in some applications, such as in water current flows of sufficiently great velocity.
Dolor Espalda Pecho
Two least efficient thrust zones, near the top and bottom walls, and a most efficient thrust zone, near the center, are depicted in FIG. Parallel to the fluid flow, at least one and preferably both the top wall 26 and-the bottom wall 28 of the channel 20 incorporate bulges or changes in elevation, as best seen in FIGS.
Dolor Neuropático Periférico
5. The centerline 53 dips toward the trajectory of the turbine wheel, imparting to the top wall a slight angle or V shape in transverse cross-section, i.e., in a plane perpendicular to the flow of the fluid. The channel generally comprises opposed side walls 22,24, a top wall 26, and a bottom wall 28 which form a passage 30 for directing the flow of fluid to the turbine. The angle or V shape helps to smooth out and direct the fluid approaching the turbine and allows the fluid to pass the rectangular blades at the points 56, 66 of minimal clearance with the top and bottom walls without choking.
Rotation of the turbine tends to twist the flow of fluid past the turbine out of a generally linear path. Other parameters affecting φ and φ’ are the diameter of the turbine, the shape of the turbine blades, the material out of which the channel and blades are formed, and the surface finish or roughness. 13, in which one half is a left-handed helix and the other half is a right-handed helix. In a third embodiment, the blades are arranged in a helical configuration, which allows the channel to have a rectangular cross-section and ensures that a portion of the blades are always positioned perpendicular to the fluid pressure, thereby creating maximum thrust to spin the turbine. The skewed leading edges of the helical configuration further reduce resistance to the turbine rotation. The turbine continues to rotate in the same direction, although its rotation speed varies somewhat with the increase and decrease in the speed of the air.
Dolor Muscular Brazo
The flowing air causes the turbine to rotate as described above. Generally, the turbine is mounted in a housing 136 having a turbine chamber such as described above. However, in some applications, such as if the current velocity is sufficiently great, the housing may not need to be provided. With the delta- or other curvilinear-shaped blades, the channel may have a simpler rectangular cross-section.