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1 correspond to the X, Y, and Z directions of the tensioner 10 and curved sheet 20, discussed in the remainder of the figures. Preferably, this curvature exists when the curved sheet is under zero stress from gravity, fluid flow, and tension in the tensioner. In this type of structure, the line of tension be set back from the leading edge because the leading edge is rigid and therefore will not deform and folder over in response to fluid flow, or become convex due to stress resulting from curvature in sheet material behind the leading edge. A relatively large stiffness to bending in the curved sheet, will tend to damp out period oscillations along the direction of fluid flow, in the sheet. Oscillations were very strong. C3: Fold sizes at trailing edge, in inches: 0.0; 0.0; 0.0. Fold sizes midway between leading and trailing edge: 0.2; 0.25; 0.2. Results: Strong preferred oscillations.

  • The apparatus of claim 1 , wherein said linear motion energy converter comprises
  • Conteo sanguíneo completo (CSC)
  • Moscoso J. El dolor crónico en la historia. Rev. Estud. Soc. 2013; 47: 170-76
  • La culpabilidad
  • Influye positivamente en la regulación del sistema vegetativo
  • Nacimiento prematuro
  • Vitamina C
  • The apparatus of claim 1 wherein the apparatus is used as an energy generating device

Very strong oscillating forces were felt by the hand holding the tensioning line at the bottom of the device. Dolor lado izquierdo lumbar . Annular ring 2405 is joined to sheath 2406. Magnet M is constrained inside a cavity of the hub portion at the lower end of sheath 2406. Annular ring 2405, sheath 2406, and magnet M are all annular and are disposed around pole 2401, and are not rigidly fixed to pole 2401. A top end of spring 2404 is secured to ring 2403. A bottom end of spring 2404 is secured to ring 2405. The bottom end of tensioner 10 is secured to ring 2405 or sheath 2406. Coils 72 reside outside of the lower portion of pole 2401. In operation, curved sheet structure 14 oscillates causing oscillating force on ring 2405 in the vertical direction. This mechanism uses a rack 90 constrained by constraint 91 to so that it oscillates substantially linearly along the Y direction.

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In an actual test device (herein below CI) exhibiting oscillation substantially in the preferred fundamental mode: the sheet length along the leading edge was 130 inches; the leading edge was substantially straight; the trailing edge formed a crescent such that the center of the trailing edge was 16 inches from the center of the leading edge, and the trailing edge was convex; 1.8 inches was pinched and folded out of the trailing edge, distributed at 3 pinch locations along the trailing edge; and one half as much (under 1 inch) was pinched and folded halfway from between the leading edge and trailing edge distributed at the 3 locations at the same positions along the sheet as the trailing edge folds; the sheet was formed from rip stop type nylon having a thickness of 0.003 inches (.00008 meters), a center thickness of 16 inches. Including one device made from opposing pieces of 2 inch thick duct tape and hemp rope.

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5: 52, 54, 56), the foregoing device was tested for oscillations. Increasing tension in the tensioner tends to damp the higher order oscillations along the front edge. A result of the damping oscillations of the higher order modes is that the length of a sheet exhibiting substantial oscillations in the preferred fundamental mode is unlimited. That tension is on average equal to tension in tensioner 10 pulling tensioner 10 up. This mechanism uses a spring 80 between fixed point P, magnet M, and tensioner 10. Dolor de estomago que llega hasta la espalda . Spring 80 is connected to the lower end of tensioner 10. Spring 80 provides tension pulling tensioner 10 down. The earlier smaller devices indicated the existence of oscillations in the preferred fundamental mode for sheets of any length (from a few centimeters to a couple feet long in the fluid flow direction and for the airs speeds of about 3-10 miles per hour (generated by a set of 4 vertically stacked box fans).

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Tensioner 10 is coupled to energy converter 30 which converts periodic oscillations in energy from the tensioner (either oscillations in the tension along the tensioner 10 or spatial oscillation of tensioner 10 along Y, and/or X directions) to useful output energy, Eout. The mechanism for using oscillations in the length in the tensioning line therein to generate energy are generally applicable to the oscillator inventions noted below. Fig. 19 illustrates a novel device including a novel fluid oscillator device 190, balloon, glider, or other aerodynamic device 191, and tensioning line 192 for energy in converting fluid flow 11. Tensioning line 192 extends to ground, sea bed, river bed, or lake bed. Fig. 13 illustrates an alternative novel device for converting fluid flow to useful energy including a rigid plate 120 and a relatively flexible sheet 121. In this embodiment, a tensioning line connects at a set back location 130 from the leading edge of the rigid plate.

A result of a curvature in the curved sheet is that the lowest energy state of the curved sheet under stress induced by fluid flow exists when all regions of the sheet have the same sign of curvature, that is, the curvature points away from the same side of the sheet at all points of the sheet. Consequently, fluid flow force applied along the Y direction to the curved sheet structure switches sign every half oscillation along the Y direction, providing positive feedback and transferring energy from the fluid flow to the oscillator. Device 190 includes a relatively rigid “C” shaped structure 194 providing fixed points PI, P2, tensioner 10, and curved sheet 20 between points PI, P2.

Without tension, device initially did not oscillate. Leading edge did not exhibit substantial oscillations. One constraint is the shape of the leading edge of the curved sheet. Cuanto dura el dolor lumbar . Fig. 5 shows an embodiment illustrating one means to modify a flat sheet to impart curvature to form the curved sheet. The shape factor depends upon the angle between the wind velocity direction and normal to the opposing region of the curved sheet and is of order 1. Sheet volume decreases with decreasing sheet width and accordingly selecting a thin enough sheet enables curvature to switch at a given fluid and fluid velocity.

In other words, oscillation occur over a wide range of sheet configurations and wind velocities for conventional sheet materials. During and after initial tension substantially removing leading edge concavity, device oscillated in the preferred fundamental mode throughout the sheet at low wind velocity (about 1-4 miles per hour). Fig. 2B, is an illustration showing oscillation in the X-Z plane of the preferred fundamental mode of the device shown in Fig. Fig. 2A is an illustration relating to the device of Fig. Oscillations in tension along tensioner 10 caused by a fluid oscillator device (not shown) oscillating in respond to fluid flow generates a periodic variation in tension in tensioner 10. The periodic variation in tension drives magnet M periodically up and down. In particular, the mechanisms for converting oscillating motion to electrical energy noted therein are generally applicable to the oscillator inventions noted below.

Results for CI to C9 are presented below. Fig. 3 shows a path 31 in this Zo plane traversed by tensioner 10. Oscillation at twice the frequency along x as along y results in a path forming two loops, a generalized figure “8” shape. The leading edge oscillates in a sideways direction, which sideways direction is (1) perpendicular to the fluid flow and (2) perpendicular to a line connecting the two fixed points. The leading edge oscillates in the sideways direction such that at one time all of the leading edge is displaced to a first side of a line extending through the two fixed points, in this sideways direction. Observations show that the leading edge of the sheet performs periodic oscillation in both the sideways direction, and in the direction of fluid flow, as shown in Figs.

Curvature along a direction, at a point in a sheet herein refers to the inverse of the radius, R, of curvature, of the curve at that point defined by that direction. That condition is satisfied for curved sheets because the energy required to invert the curvature is not greater than the energy to stretch the sheet flat. This curvature condition normally also exists when the curved sheet structure is under zero stress, except for situations in which the application of tension to the tensioner is the cause of some or all of the curvature. The novel oscillator comprises a curved sheet structure. This mechanism includes a plurality of the saw toothed rack 90 and pinion 93 mechanisms of Fig. Various pinches, causing folds in the sheet may be formed, and constrained to remain in the folded shape. A half period later, the leading edge is displaced to the second side, opposite the first side, of the line extending through the two fixed points, in this sideways direction.

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1-2. The tensioner 10 defines the leading edge of the curved sheet structure. Fig. 6C shows an X-Z plan view of the curved sheet at different phase of oscillation in the preferred fundamental mode than for Fig. However, it appeared that some of the higher order modes along the trailing edge may not have been entirely suppressed. C8: Fold sizes at trailing edge, in inches: 0.5; 0.25; 0.5. Dolor de espalda parte baja . Fold sizes midway between leading and trailing edge: 0.1;.125; 0.1. Results: Trailing edge exhibited a coherent oscillation along its length, but that oscillation was decoupled with the leading edge. However, the trailing edge oscillated at a higher frequency than the leading edge.

No uniform period oscillation along the leading edge was detectable under the following two conditions. This device was had a substantial convex curve to the leading edge before application of tension to the leading edge via the tensioning line. The existence of two fixed points constraining an end of the tensioner to be immobile is not essential and not present in many of the energy conversion device alternatives. Ymax and -Ymax as shown in Fig.