Examples of some environmental concerns include carbon dioxide emissions, acidic mine drainage from coal extraction waste, heat disposal and radioactive fission products produced during nuclear energy generation. An additional feature of the present invention concerns the control of vacuum pressure generated so as to maintain pressure differentials that allows for economical energy recovery while also minimizing effects on entrained fish. The time required to establish a vacuum of 20 inches Hg was measured for three flow periods, five, seven and nine seconds with various valve closed durations. Further features and advantages of the present invention will be described with reference to the drawings where similar numbers represent like elements in the several views and are only identified specifically where the elements differ. In EPO Patent 0,162,814 to Burgnoli, there is disclosed an apparatus that improves the efficiency of a hydraulic air compressor, such as that described in the Cary patent, by recirculating air that is under negative gauge pressure as the air exits an air motor designed to produce power.
Dolor Espalda Cáncer Pulmón
The air turbine 46 is coupled to a device requiring power input such as an electrical generator 48. Upon reaching the desired level of energy recovery, the drive pipe valve 18 is re-opened again for a short period of time, the intake check valve 36 is closed or closes given pressure differential (described below), and water again is accelerated in the drive pipe 12, thereby allowing the process to be repeated. For example, with H defined as Z1−Z2, of 10 feet, Vmax is 25.4 ft/s whereas an H of 100 feet provides a Vmax of 80.2 ft/s. One preferred embodiment of a hydropower system which utilizes a riser with piston and shaft assembly is depicted in FIG.
BRIEF SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION In accordance with the present invention, a hydropower conversion system is provided which uses a hydraulic gradient to accelerate water in a drive pipe thus converting potential energy into kinetic energy. Energy recovery can be enhanced further by using the potential energy of the air under vacuum present in the riser section 28 at the end of the deceleration phase. Further, performance may be further enhanced by increasing the diameter of the valve release riser section from 8 inches to 12 inches. In an alternative deployment, the hydropower generator system, such as hydroelectric power system 310, may be deployed in a water source having tidal flows. Further, the present system may be used to generate electricity, water pumping, and/or refrigeration in underdeveloped regions of the world. Further, the various hydropower generator systems may be modified and are adapted as necessary for use in streams, rivers and tidal waters where conventional forms of hydropower generation are currently not feasible or acceptable.
An object of the present invention relates to providing hydroelectric power or an inexpensive water pumping potential using previously untapped low head resources such as rivers and tidal flows. In addition, the present system has a potential use by a single user or signal residence to supplement other forms of energy production such as wind, solar and geothermal.
Dolor Espalda Media
A further object of the present invention relates to providing a hydroelectric power system which does not negatively impact aquatic resources. For example, there is a need to reduce impacts on fishery resources through application of improved hydropower technologies, specifically those that reduce required dam height, eliminate turbine blade induced mortality of migrating fishes and limit or prevent supersaturation of water with air which has been linked to gas bubble disease of aquatic species. 4,098,081 to Woodman, there is disclosed a power generation system that uses a plurality of tidal chambers which are filled in succession during rising tide and which are allowed to sequentially empty during falling tide.
Dolores Musculares En Los Brazos
6. It will be readily apparent to one of ordinary skill that a valve closed duration of about 60% of the flow period (the ratio of the duration the valve is closed to the duration the valve is opened) maximized the performance of the hydropower conversion system in terms of reducing the time it takes to achieve a desired vacuum. Gas 56 under pressure could be used to operate the turbine 46 or other additional pneumatic equipment (discussed below).
A further feature of the present invention concerns the ability to operate with entrained particulate matter such as sand that impairs performance of conventional hydroelectric power systems. Dolor lumbar al levantarme . This eliminates energy losses resulting from expansion and compression of entrained gas. This is equivalent to 78 watts of power generated constantly throughout a 24-hour period.
Tipos De Dolor Lumbar
Alternatively, power could be recovered by outfitting the riser with a piston and shaft assembly that moves with the water level. A negative pressure relief device is coupled to the drive pipe and is positioned near the valve. A closure device, such as a valve, is positioned downstream of an inlet of the drive pipe to interrupt water flow in the drive pipe, thus creating a temporary negative pressure down stream of the valve. Gas is pulled into a pressure relief device coupled to the drive pipe, without introducing water into the pressure relief device, using the negative pressure. During operation of hydropower system 810, forces applied to the shaft 847 while performing work also act to restrict movement of piston 843 and thus provide a braking force necessary to slow moving water in the drive pipe 812 following closure of valve 818. The rise and fall of the water level 844 in relief cylinder 828 occurs, in a manner similar to that in riser section 28 of hydropower system 10, i.e.
Optimization of performance of a hydropower conversion system of the present invention is provided with reference to the following example. According to one aspect of the present invention, a hydropower conversion system is provided which uses a hydraulic gradient to accelerate a flow of water. FIG. 8 is a schematic diagram of an alternative hydropower conversion system employing a riser section with a piston and shaft assembly, according to the present invention.
Dolor Espalda Baja
The system uses the negative pressure to pull gas to power a turbine. In addition, air expansion in the hydropower system may be used to establish a refrigeration potential. In a conventional hydroelectric power system, potential energy is used to accelerate water in a discharge line (i.e., penstock) of variable length, geometry and slope.
Two or more water pumps 470 could be operated in series to increase lift potential (i.e., an elevation change denoted as elevation E). At this point, the water in motion possesses kinetic energy (Ke). An additional feature of the present invention concerns the use of power converted above flood stages to minimize construction costs. Dolor de rodilla remedio casero . As a result, there is a major cost saving provided by the present invention over those conventional systems which require a very large and slowly rotating assembly. 4,288,985 to Dyck, there is disclosed an apparatus that uses two reservoirs influenced by tidal action to force water back and forth through an air tight duct system in which a turbine is mounted for producing power. 5, a heat exchanger 590 uses the gas cooling affect generated by the hydropower generator 10, 210, 310 for refrigeration. The piston 847 is coupled to a mechanical device 849 which may include a hydraulic pump or other mechanical device for generating useful energy.
- Defectos congénitos
- Aceite esencial de lavanda
- La debilidad en el brazo, la muñeca y los dedos impide realizar actividades rutinarias
- Pérdida del cabello y piel seca
- Trabajar con cargas pesadas regularmente también tiene un efecto mínimo sobre la degeneración
- Tiene 25 años de edad o menor.
- También puede ser con las piernas estiradas, elevadas o descansando en un banco
100 feet. The lower water velocity also results in reduced turbine tip speeds and thus increases turbine shaft requirements, e.g., costs, for a given power output. 10 feet and allows similar increases in turbine tip speed. Torque applied to the turbine shaft determines the diameter of the turbine shaft. A standing column of water in the riser section assists in pulling the gas into the riser section. In addition, these high levels of vacuum allow for the direct suction lift of water to levels tens of feet above the water source. Unfortunately, large values of H result in problems associated with greater forebay volumes and the need for equipment that allows for the movement of fish both upstream and downstream. Gas under vacuum powers a turbine or other pneumatic equipment including water lifters (i.e. Operating more than one drive pipe 12 and pressure relief system 24, connected in parallel to the vacuum tank 40 and the air turbine 46, allows for uninterrupted water and air flow through a hydropower system.