In FIG. 2A, a linear flagella pump comprising four EPAM transducers attached to a support structure 303 are shown. In accordance with the present invention, the term “monolithic” is used herein to refer to electroactive polymers and transducers comprising a plurality of active areas on a single polymer. For example, a set of active areas may be employed for one or more of actuation, generation, sensing, changing the stiffness and/or damping, or a combination thereof. A polymer of the present invention may have multiple active areas. As will be described in further detail below, an adhesive or glue may be added to the rolled electroactive polymer device to maintain its rolled configuration. In one embodiment, a rolled electroactive polymer refers to a spirally wound electroactive polymer wrapped around an object or center. FIG. 6 is a schematic of a sensor employing an electroactive polymer transducer according to one embodiment of the present invention.
- Costes sanitarios
- FIG. 6 shows an enlarged view of the detail circled in FIG. 5
- Aceptar la realidad de la pérdida
- Dormir horas suficientes
- Si la persona levanta pesos o se ve afectada por otras cargas físicas
The embodiment of Fig 1 and 2 overcomes these limitations with an interacting element of type butterfly, like the butterfly valves. FIG. 4F illustrates a bending transducer 150 for providing variable stiffness based on structural changes in accordance with one embodiment of the present invention. Materials used as an electroactive polymer may be selected based on one or more material properties such as a high electrical breakdown strength, a low modulus of elasticity-(for large or small deformations), a high dielectric constant, etc. Bending elements also eliminate bearing noise and possible failure found in electromagnetic based microchip fans. In all the described embodiments, the electrical signal induced in the coil is extracted from the coil through the electrically conductive supporting elements connected to the coils ends. Dolor lumbar punzante . In one embodiment, polymer 22 does not extend all the way to outer flange 27 a and a gap 29 is left between the outer portion edge of polymer 22 and the inside surface of outer flange 27 a.
Dolores Musculares Por Ansiedad
16, 2002, by Kornbluh, et al and titled “Variable Stiffness Electroactive Polymers, which is incorporated herein in its entirety and for all purposes. To avoid the above mentioned conditions, the invention the device offers a particular energy collecting method, controlled by a unit which is associated to or integrated in the collecting unit. If the bulb were displaced by an electric motor having very large conductors and a pulley on which is wound a string suspending a weight, then the storage battery could pass through the same series of states with no net outside effect except the rise in the weight.
Dolor Neuropático Que Es
The term electrostrictive is used here in a generic sense to describe the stress and strain response of a material to the square of an electric field. One advantage is that EPAM transducers 302 are generally lighter in weight than electric motors. An EPAM transducer 302 is connected between a support 313 and a support structure 303 with a flow conduit.
The support is attached to the support structure 303 by a linkage that allows the support 313 to pivot at a linkage point with the support structure. For example, the multilayer structure of device 20 modulates the overall spring constant of the device relative to each of the individual polymer layers. Without wishing to bound by a particular theory, the change in capacitance of a polymer film with electrodes may be estimated by well known formulas relating the capacitance to the film’s area, thickness, and dielectric constant.
Dolor Neuropático Periférico
Correspondingly, numerous simple electrical measurement circuits and systems may be implemented within sensing electronics 460 to detect a change in electrical energy of transducer 451. For example, if transducer 451 operates in capacitance mode, then a simple capacitance bridge may be used to detect changes in transducer 451 capacitance. For instance, the one surface may expand to form one of a balloon-like shape, a hemispherical shape, a cylinder shape, or a half-cylinder shape. The one surface may be operatively coupled to the one or more transducers via a mechanical linkage. For compressible fluids such as gases being compressed to high pressures, the stroke volumes of each stage are ideally matched to the changing volume of gas (for example, if the gas is compressed to half its original volume in a many-stage pump, the last stage may only have to pump roughly half the volume per stroke as the first stage).
Electroactive elastomers may exhibit high energy density, stress, and electromechanical coupling efficiency. In this case, polymer 12 may deflect greater in one direction than another when actuated. Because of that, and seen from above, the twocoils loop in opposite direction. The piston driven pump 320 includes two fluid conduits with check valves 316 designed to limit a movement of the of the fluid to the directions of the arrow. Check valves may be used to prevent fluid from flowing to the previous upstream stage, such as from stage 382 to stage 381. In general, a plurality of stages may be used with the present invention and the present invention is not limited to three stages. The fluid conduit may be comprised of an EPAM roll transducer.
Tipos De Dolor De Cabeza
Preferably, linear guide 30 does not interfere with the axial deflection of device 20. For example, linear guide 30 preferably does not introduce frictional resistance between itself and any portion of spring 24. Que tomar para dolor de espalda baja . With linear guide 30, or any other suitable constraint that prevents motion outside of axial direction 35, device 20 may act as a linear actuator or generator with output strictly in direction 35. Linear guide 30 may be comprised of any suitably stiff material such as wood, plastic, metal, etc. The device may also comprise an output shaft designed to receive a hydraulic force generated from a pressure in the fluid where the deflection in the portion of the electroactive polymer causes the pressure in the fluid to increase and provide the hydraulic force for moving the output shaft. Alternately, if a positive pressure fluid (relative to the external surface of the tube) is available, the positive pressure can be used to provide actuation with a circumferential pre-strain or pre-load.
In one embodiment, transducer 180 comprises four leads that provide common actuation for each of the four radially aligned active area sets. In yet other embodiment, the device may be a stage in one of a multi-stage pump or a multi-stage compressor. Generally, after the polymer is pre-strained, it may be fixed to one or more objects or mechanisms. Besides a bellows pump, the present invention may be used in many types of pump designs. These pump designs include but are not limited to a centrifugal pump, a diaphragm pump, a rotary pump, a gear pump and an air-lift pump.
By way of example, carbon fibrils work well with acrylic elastomer polymers while not as well with silicone polymers. As the roll radius decreases, the number of permissible layers typically decrease is well. 5B show a schematic view of a further executive variation where the interacting element is a multi-wing or multi -blade whirl, in particular a whirl with four blades positioned as ina cross among them, departing from the same rotation axis. 25it is suspended to the frame or in a position half way between the frame support and the element interacting with the fluid. Active area 152 b has top and bottom electrodes 156 a and 156 b that are attached to the polymer 151 on its top and bottom surfaces 151 c and 151 d, respectively. In another embodiment, pre-strain is applied unequally in different directions for a portion of polymer 12 to produce an anisotropic pre-strained polymer.
The device may also comprise a bias mechanism for biasing a direction of deflection of the portion of the electroactive polymer. Dolor de espalda cronico tratamiento . Larger gaps may be used for pumping incompressible fluids, whereas smaller gaps minimize “dead space” when pumping compressible fluids and allow the EPAM to more effectively pressurize the compressible fluid. The extraction will continue up to the moment when the spikes are smaller than | Imin | for a pre-defined control time tCNTRL. The phase change may be used to remove energy from the fluid 336. In another embodiment, the fluid 336 may change phase states, such as from a liquid to a gas, when the volume of the pumping chamber is expanded. Further, a fluid, such as a gas, may be expanded in the pumping chamber to reduce its temperate prior to it being pumped past the heat source. The EPAM transducer 323 may be deflected to change the volume of the pumping chamber.
Dolor De Hombro
The thermodynamic work may provide a driving force to move the fluid from a first location to a second location. FIG. 7C is a block diagram of an EPAM device for performing thermodynamic work on a fluid in an inkjet printer. For a rectangular shaped pumping device the foot print area is the product of a length times a width of the device. The government has certain fights in the invention. In general, the EPAM devices for providing thermodynamic work of the present invention may be used as a component in a thermal control system. As the generated electrical signal depends both on the amplitude and on the frequency of the oscillation, the invention focuses on particularly maximizing the amplitude of the oscillations to 5enhance efficiency with low density and or low speed flows with little kinetic energy.