The hitherto unrecognized fact that this fundamental distinction might be exploited to great advantage in the context of the wave motor art is, then, the basis for one of the principal novel features of the present invention, the purpose and substantive content of which have already been set forth above. As previously mentioned, a further structural feature of the annular outrigger 3 is its division into component frameworks (not explicitly distinguished as component frameworks is intended for the purpose of providing articulation means (not shown in the drawings) for relieving any excessive wave induced stresses acting at the interfaces between mutually adjacent component frameworks. Finally, the previously mentioned wave frequency spectral function, which quantitatively describes in statistical terms the orderly and progressive inward attenuation of the state of the sea that has been mentioned earlier as taking place thoughout the said annular region, may be loosely compared to the steady state temperature distribution throughout the said annular heat conductor.
The just mentioned dual combination of mutually complementary subsystems–the impeller subsystem and the intermediate wave energy conversion and conveyance subsystem–may then be loosely compared to an interposed heat conductor of suitable annular shape, the exterior boundary of which abuts on the surrounding infinite heat energy source, and the interior boundary of which abuts on the central heat energy sink. 1-4. Thus, all impellers 50, possessing in common the same minimal or nearly minimal natural frequency, are supported by component frameworks belonging to the outermost annular subset, as shown in FIGS. 1 that every impeller 50 drives two identical pumping devices 46, each of which is mechanically coupled respectively to one of two corresponding fixed horizontal radial pipes 57 and to four of eight corresponding moving struts 47 and 58, attached respectively to pivot sleeves 49 and 59. Both of these horizontal radial pipes 57 are partitioned off into inner “venous” and outer “arterial” sections by plugs 31, each “venous” section joining and communicating with the circumferential pipe 48, and each “arterial” section joining and communicating with an outermost circumferential pipe 54. The circumferential pipe 54 is shown in FIGS.
Dolor Neuropático Crónico
The “venous” part includes the central chamber 6, the conduits 18 and their extensions 13, 15 and 17, the radial ducts 20, the upper sections of the vertical pipes 29, and the radial pipes 24 and circumferential pipes 26. The “arterial” part includes the lower sections of the pipes 29, the radial pipes 25 and circumferential pipes 27, outlets 42 and 44 that discharge water from the respective pipes 25 and 27 to the ambient subsurface surroundings, and, finally, the entire body of water surrounding the overall system. DISCLOSURE OF INVENTION As will later be shown in detail, the present invention is best embodied in the form of an overall system for extracting subsurface wave energy, capable of operating at sea on an arbitrarily large scale of wave power output, in any one of a broad range of sea states, and at any depth up to 200 feet or more, adjustable according to the sea state.
More generally, in the presence of any arbitrarily large number of linearly superposed progressive sinusoidal surface waves traveling in arbitrary directions, and of arbitrary wave heights H, wave periods T, and wavelengths L, the components, in any given direction, of the subsurface wave forces arising from the resultant water particle orbital motions will be oscillatory everywhere except in the surf zone. In the drawings, for the sake of simplicity of illustration, specific examples are shown of only two limiting kinds of component working member: namely, (i) a component working member, generally identified as to its kind by the numeral 38, whose completely enclosing surface possesses the minimum possible water movement responsive area consistent with its gross external geometry, and whose water movement effective volume-to-surface area ratio is accordingly the maximum possible; and (ii) a component working member, generally identified as to its kind by the numeral 40, whose completely enclosing surface is given an internally multiply reentrant structure such that it thereby acquires the maximum possible water movement responsive area consistent with its gross external geometry, and whose water movement effective volume-to-surface area ratio is accordingly the minimum possible.
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9, the above mentioned net restoring torque has the maximum magnitude possible. 1, showing also in phantom the corresponding view taken on the line 4–4 of FIG. The just mentioned disadvantages that attend the use of directional wave energy absorbers, and that are avoided in the present invention, are also avoided in the Scripps proposal referred to above. In the present invention, on the other hand, as has been previously pointed out, full utilization is made of resonance as a means of maximally amplifying the wave power incident upon each individual wave energy absorber. One such scheme for an offshore power plant, based on the pumping action of a free-heaving vertical pipe containing a water column that is alternately entrained and then partially replaced by means of a check valve, has been described by Isaacs, Castel, and Wick in Ocean Engineering, Vol.
In accordance with one broad feature of this invention, and with the two general objects thereof just mentioned, the conversion to usable form of the said subsurface wave energy is effected by means of a seagoing system that includes an inboard platform or hull, an attached outboard platform or outrigger, and a subsystem of submerged wave energy removing impellers supported upon the outrigger. Another general object of this invention is to enable the efficient, expeditious, economical, and safe operation of the said overall system. With this alternative approach that is provided here, it matters little what those directions might be, or what might be the corresponding idealized individual energy fluxes in those particular directions. On the other hand, those unit cells which support impellers 50 have a quite different geometry, but one which may nevertheless be readily visualized with the aid of FIGS. Dolor mecanico lumbar . 2. Its total reaction movement in response to the said ambient water movement must be approximately that of a simple harmonic oscillator of a preselected but arbitrary natural frequency, and must be composed principally of resonant oscillations of that or any closely neighboring frequency that are in tuned response to all ambient component progressive sinusoidal surface waves with a corresponding preselected narrow range of wave periods T, and that are performed with a maximal magnification factor which is essentially independent of the directions of travel of the said surface waves.
Among certain idealized concepts first introduced in the small amplitude linear wave theory developed by Airy and others (see, e.g., McCormick, Ocean Engineering Wave Mechanics, John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1973, Chapter 2) is that of the energy flux associated with a progressive sinusoidal surface wave traveling in a given direction with a well defined wave height H, wavelength L, and wave period T. It is upon this concept that attention is primarily focused in the proposal of Salter, where, under the idealized conditions of unidirectional wave propagation assumed therein, it is a helpful simplification to think in terms of the rate of transport of wave energy across a linear array of his specially contoured, directional wave energy absorbers.
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Moreover, under these more complicated conditions, the use of specially contoured, directional wave energy absorbers would be attended with serious disadvantages. Still more advantageous than the latter proposals would be one contemplating a rectangular 2-dimensional array of omnidirectional wave energy absorbers. In fact, this same statement still holds true when expressed in quite general terms, no matter what the surface wave conditions might be, apart from breaking wave conditions or the like. In heavy seas, however, as noted by Katory in the May 1976 issue of The Naval Architect (vol. Here, however, the component working members always occur in pairs, one working member of each pair being of the kind generally identified by the numeral 38, and the other being of the kind generally identified by the numeral 40. As illustrated in FIGS. 1 and 2, in each of which there appears only a single pair of component working members 38 and 40, in the same spatial relationship as that of the uppermost and lowermost component working members 38 and 40 shown in FIG.
Contributing in a similar way to the omnidirectional response characteristics of the impellers 50 is the fact that each distinct component working member of any given impeller 50 has the shape, equilibrium orientation, and relative position of a corresponding distinct elementary right prism whose bases are trapezoids, whose two nonparallel rectangular lateral faces lie in planes that meet in the axis of support of the said impeller, and whose two parallel rectangular lateral faces lie in vertical planes on one side of and parallel to the said axis of support, there being a systematic, nonoverlapping progression of such elementary right prisms, the gross external geometry of which is, as previously mentioned, that of a right prism whose bases are trapezoids having the symmetrical shape and overall dimensions shown in detail in FIG. Further contributing to the omnidirectional response characteristics of the impellers 28 and 30 is the fact that each distinct component working member of either kind of impeller has the symmetrical shape, equilibrium orientation, and relative position of a corresponding distinct elementary frustum of a vertically oriented cone of revolution whose vertex is the point of support of a given impeller 28 or 30, there being in general a systematic, nonoverlapping progression of such elementary frustums, with predetermined individual altitudes totalling roughly one-half of the altitude of the cone of revolution whose shape is that of the said impeller as a whole.
Thus, at any given instant, the total oscillatory drag force acting upon a given submerged structure will be the resultant of the oscillatory normal forces that would be exerted upon the surface of the latter if it were to be placed in a steady flow pattern identical with the instantaneous oscillatory flow pattern then prevailing in the surrounding body of water. Extending upward from the ball joint 32 supporting the impeller 28 are four struts 36 (see FIGS. BACKGROUND ART Many proposals, covering a very broad range of conceptual designs, have been made in the past for obtaining power from ocean waves.