Thus, the top end 24 a of spring 24 is operably coupled to the top edge 22 a of polymer 22 in that deflection of top end 24 a corresponds to deflection of the top edge 22 a of polymer 22. Likewise, the bottom end 24 b of spring 24 is operably coupled to the bottom edge 22 b of polymer 22 and deflection bottom end 24 b corresponds to deflection of the bottom edge 22 b of polymer 22. Polymer 22 and spring 24 are capable of deflection between their respective bottom top portions. 1A and FIG. 1B. In section 2, embodiments of devices and systems with EPAM transducers and their operation, such as pumps, compressors, fans and hydraulic cylinders are described with respect to FIGS. FIGS. 3I and 3J illustrate an embodiment of a multi-stage EPAM compressor or pumping device. 3A shows a cross-sectional view of an EP tube-type pump 350 where a tube of electroactive polymer is attached at both ends on rigid end structures 351. The tube can be made by rolling EPAM or made directly using dip coating processes.
In another embodiment, a tube-type pump comprising an electroactive polymer roll transducer may be used. The pumps may be used to move a fluid in a toy. The fluids may be circulated within a space defined within the suit or within conduits residing in the materials used for the suits. For instance, the operating frequency may be below 30 Hz. Dolor de pecho y espalda lado derecho . In cases where the transducer is used for damping, a resistance that produces an RC time constant for the resistor and the transducer in the range of about 0.1 to about 4 times the period of a frequency of interest may be suitable. Further, an operating frequency at which the portion of the electroactive polymer deflects is above or below a human hearing range. The pump in FIGS.
Dolor Espalda Lado Derecho
FIGS. 2L and 2M illustrate cross section of an embodiment of a bellows spring roll transducer 600. The bellows spring roll actuator 600 may be used as a pump, a valve or both. In particular, the device may be one of air compressor, a bellows bump, a fuel pump and a centrifugal pump. The deflection of the portion of the electroactive polymer may also stretch the bladder or bellows to increase a volume of the bladder or the bellows.
The electrostriction of a polymer with compliant electrodes may result from electrostatic forces generated between free charges on the electrodes (sometimes referred to as “Maxwell stress”) and is proportional to the square of the electric field. The actual strain response in this case may be quite complicated depending on the internal and external forces on the polymer, but the electrostatic pressure and stresses are proportional to the square of the field.
Tipos De Dolor De Cabeza
At shown, electrodes 174 a-d each include a wire 175 a-d attached thereto that provides dedicated external electrical communication and permits individual control for each active area 176 a-d. For instance, in FIGS. The invention describes devices for performing thermodynamic work on a fluid, such as pumps, compressors and fans (see FIGS. For example, the transmission mechanism may be designed or configured to receive flow-generated mechanical energy and to transfer a portion of the flow-generated mechanical energy to a portion of a polymer where the transferred portion of the flow generated mechanical energy results in a deflection in the transducer. The fan blade 326 may include a second EPAM transducer 390 that is designed to change a pitch of the fan blade by rotating the blade. The polarity of the voltage change across resistor then determines the direction of current flow and whether the polymer is expanding or contracting.
In one embodiment, a single integrated EPAM transducer instead of the two transducers 391 and 392 may be used to change the shape of the blade and to change its pitch. The transducers 302 are located next to cooling fins 307. The cooling fins may be used to conduct heat away from the fluid that is moved by the motion of the transducers 302 through the cooling fins.
The larger bending angle may enable a greater fluid flow for microchip cooling. The improved mechanical response enables greater mechanical work for an electroactive polymer, e.g., larger deflections and actuation pressures. For example, active area 174 a may be used for actuation and variable stiffness control of a fluid conduit.
4I illustrates bow device 200 after actuation. FIG. Causas de dolor lumbar . 4E illustrates an end piece for the rolled electroactive polymer device of FIG. 1A illustrates a top perspective view of a transducer portion 10 in accordance with one embodiment of the present invention. Polymer thickness may be reduced by stretching the film in one or both planar directions. Suitable materials used in an electrode may include graphite, carbon black, colloidal suspensions, thin metals including silver and gold, silver filled and carbon filled gels and polymers, and ionically or electronically conductive polymers.
The same active area may also be used for generation to produce electrical energy based on motion of the fluid conduit. The two diodes, 615 and 616, function as charge control circuitry 604 for transducer 600 which is part of the power conditioning electronics 610 (see FIG. FIG. 5A is block diagram of one or more active areas connected to power conditioning electronics. Radially aligned active area 184 may include common electrical communication with active areas on inner polymer layers having the same radial alignment. As one skilled in the art will appreciate, transducers of the present invention may find use in countless applications requiring conversion between electrical and mechanical energy.
It will be apparent, however, to one skilled in the art, that the present invention may be practiced without some or all of these specific details. 3F is that it is self-priming (i.e., it can pull in liquid), and it is self-priming in a way that the biasing means only needs to supply sufficient bias force to pull liquid from the top input chamber to the bottom exit chamber through the one-way valve.
In one embodiment, the foam may extend to the bottom of a lower chamber 387 and the screen may not be used. 4H. Attached to opposite (top and bottom) surfaces of the polymer 206 are electrodes 207 (bottom electrode on bottom side of polymer 206 not shown) to provide electrical communication with polymer 206. FIG.
- Limitar el consumo de lácteos en caso de sufrir de intolerancias
- La vía respiratoria
- Enfermedades como la artritis
- Pérdida del cabello
- The turbine according to claim 2, wherein
- Irritación de las articulaciones y músculos de la pierna o pélvis vecinos al nervio
- Miocarditis, pericarditis, angina de pecho, aterosclerosis y cardiopatías diversas
- Postura del Gato o Marjaryasana
Without wishing to be constrained by any particular theory, a number of theoretical relationships regarding the electrical performance the generator 603 are developed. For example, a 10-fold to 25-fold increase in area significantly improves performance of many electroactive elastomers. The pre-strain may comprise elastic deformation of polymer 12 and be formed, for example, by stretching the polymer in tension and fixing one or more of the edges while stretched. The device may be a fan used in a ventilation system where the fluid is air.