If the internal volume 5 is sealed this will protect equipment stored inside it from the corrosive effects of sea-water. FIG. 13a shows a possible design of a wave powered desalination system to convert sea-water to fresh-water. FIG. 3c is a side view of the system of FIG. Further horizontal shelves 6 of any suitable depth may also be provided along the height of the backward face 11 to provide additional structural strength. To increase structural strength, tapering of the curvature of the paddle is preferably gradual from the top of the paddle to the connection point, with a more rapid taper down to the straight edge 1 below the connection point, as illustrated in FIG. FIG. 4b is a 3D side elevation view of the wave paddle of FIG.
Preferably, similar to the paddle embodiments described above, the tips on the edges of the panels 23 facing the incoming waves have a blunt, aerofoil-like shape as illustrated in FIG. 10a to 10p , the drag coefficient (Cd) of the backward face 11 is greater than 2. Depending upon the materials used, the drag coefficients (Cd) for the forward faces 12 lie between 0.3 and 2.0, the flatter design of FIG. 10a and a forward face formed from two flat sections. FIGS. 10a to 10d show parabolic or semi-elliptical paddles similar to the first embodiment described above. FIGS. Dolor de espalda y cintura . 10k to 10p show a range of compound paddle designs formed by using different cross-sections on the backward and forward faces of the paddle. The paddle illustrated in FIG. FIG. 11a shows two smoothly curving panels 23 having a curvature that meets smoothly with an elliptically curved paddle 24 similar to the paddle illustrated in FIG.
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−30°, the entire paddle should be rotatable toward the incoming waves to maximize power extraction. These results demonstrate the curve paddle delivers a mean power output of about 51 W/m, while the flat paddle delivered only about 23 W/m. 3 is used to compute the power generated and mean power output over 2 s window (shown with a dashed line).
The shelf helps to prevent water flowing over the top of the backward face 11 in use (“overtopping”), thereby increasing power absorption, and provides additional structural strength. A range of other wave frequencies and heights were also tested, with the curved design consistently delivering between 40% and 150% more power.
The curved paddle was of form similar to that shown in FIG.
13a can be located in the front pointed tip 5 of the device, with a low pressure pipe delivering desalinated water ashore. 13a may be located in an internal volume 5 of a paddle. The curved paddle was of form similar to that shown in FIG. FIG. 12 shows a possible design of a wave powered hydraulic system designed to generate electricity. The described paddles 24 are intended for use with a wave-power conversion system or “base device” 15 which together extracts energy from the movement of the paddle and converts it into a useful form, usually electricity. TECHNICAL FIELD This invention relates to a wave energy extraction device or paddle for converting energy within water waves, particularly sea waves, into useful mechanical motion. FIGS. 11a to 11f illustrate a range of paddle 24 and panel 23 combinations, similar to the embodiments described above in connection FIG. The elements in box 70 in this system are similar in operation to the elements in box 63 in FIG.
The paddle design shown in these Figures is identical to that of FIG. FIG. 2d is a side elevation view of an alternative arrangement of this second embodiment. 1, formed from a curved sheet of metal for example, the forward-pointing tip 4 may be formed as a separate sheet and then attached to the main body of the paddle 24 creating internal volume 5. The additional material defining the internal volume 5 increases the paddle second moment of area, in each of the principal horizontal dimensions, giving the centre of the paddle additional structural strength and rigidity.
As the motion of the water on the backward face 11 drives the paddle, the region of water affected by this paddle acceleration can be idealised as a body of water 41 in front of the paddle. Preferably, the shape of the forward pointing tip 4 is similar to the drag zone (represented as a body of water 41 in FIG. Colon irritable y dolor de espalda . During a passing trough (FIG. During the paddle’s forward movement D1 and D3 act together, and are constrained by D2 (see FIG. FIG. 10k shows a paddle with the forward and backward faces each formed from two flat sections similar to FIG. 3) A constructive pressure (D3) due to incident lee side waves 42 that pass around the tips 2 of the paddle on the outer side, and travel around the forward surface 12 of the paddle. The horizontal distance from the front of the forward-pointing tip 4 to the centre of the backward concave face 11 is typically around ½ of width of the paddle to create a suitably smooth overall profile.
10c includes backward facing straight extensions 27 to the tips 2 which extend in a direction generally parallel to the incident waves to limit egress of water around the edges of the paddle. FIG. 14a illustrates a group of three paddle units arranged to form a wave farm array. The remainder of the equipment illustrated in FIG. Alternatively, as illustrated in FIG.
FIG. 16 illustrates how the dynamic pressure might vary on the forward and backward sides of a wave paddle beneath a wave crest. Each hollow tube would have an internal volume, which would improve buoyancy of the paddle if sealed and can also be used for storage of equipment (see discussion below in connection with FIGS. DESCRIPTION OF EMBODIMENTS Embodiments of the present invention relate firstly to the design and shape of paddles 24 to extract energy from water waves, particularly ocean/sea waves but also waves in bays/harbours, lakes, lochs, estuaries, reservoirs or other suitable natural or man-made bodies of water. FIGS. 4a and 4b are schematic plan and 3D side elevation views, respectively, of a fourth wave paddle embodying the present invention. Dolor de rodilla causas y tratamiento . The paddle has a concave surface 11 that points towards the incoming waves 40 (the “backward face”) and an opposing convex surface 12 that points in the direction of the wave travel (the “forward face”).
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- Cirugía, si el hombro no mejora con otros tratamientos
- Un hombro más elevado que el otro
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Fp represents the force between the paddle and the piston that extracts power, m is the mass of the paddle, and madded is the added mass. Eq. 2 represents stored, extracted and lost energy, respectively. However, the paddle is preferably not entirely submerged and waves preferably should not be able to escape over the top of the paddle (“overtopping”) since this would result in energy being lost.