This energy is frequently recognised as a ‘green’ power resource that could meet the world’s energy needs many times over. In another arrangement, where the paddle is adapted for rotational motion about an attachment point, the curvature of the paddle body changes at least partly along the height of the paddle, the body being more curved at a first point thereon which is a further distance away from an axis of rotation of the paddle than at a second point thereon. 22° and retain at least lm freeboard when the paddle is tilted most and sitting lower in the water. These shelves increase power absorption, particularly when they are located at or near the top and/or bottom of the device to prevent water overtopping or flowing underneath it, respectively, and provide additional structural strength.
For example, Figure 13b illustrates a possible paddle design 24 in which reverse osmosis tubes are incorporated within vertical structural tubes 76 located between flat panels defining the forward 12 and backward 11 faces. However, the paddle is preferably not entirely submerged and waves preferably should not be able to escape over the top of the paddle (“overtopping”) since this would result in energy being lost. However, the present invention is not limited to these particular arrangements. Preferably, therefore, the paddle should not extend below the point where the speed of the bottom tip of the paddle exceeds the particle velocities within the incoming waves at that depth. Also, the shelf 6 preferably extends backwards for the full depth of the concavity in the backward face 11 to minimise the egress of water, but may be less than the full depth if significant overtopping is not anticipated or if there is a need to limit the maximum energy extracted from particularly large waves.
Dolor De Muelas
Alternatively, the device comprises two or more components including: a wave energy absorber component having a first width and adapted to move in response to incoming water waves for extracting power; and a wave energy concentrator component for concentrating water waves from across a second width greater than the first width down to the first width and guiding the concentrated wave energy towards the wave energy absorber component.
On the other hand, a depth greater than about 1/2 of a wavelength would bridge sequential wave crests and troughs, leading to conflicting flow directions at different points over the paddle surface. These panels 23 are useful where the maximum width of the paddle 24 has been reached due to size, weight or other limits, but where the system is capable of extracting more useful energy from each wave. A flexible joint that permits the device to move up and down in response to changes in sea level (due to tides, for example) leads to improved extraction of wave energy by optimising the position of the device relative to sea level. One way to achieve this is to remove the water on the lee side of the paddle and create an air gap within which the paddle can move freely. During the formation of a wave trough, when the wave fluid particles move backward away from the paddle’s concave backward face 11, the concave shape now acts to magnify the depth of the trough creating a lower water surface than would otherwise occur without the paddle.
Each of these paddles also have a substantially flat face on the lee side of the paddle. Additionally, having a generally flat profile in an attachment point adjacent the sea bed is easier to seal to restrict flow of water beneath the paddle and preventing energy from being lost. Figure 15 illustrates the total pressures on a vertical paddle beneath a non-breaking wave, which are predominantly hydrostatic (i.e. During the paddle’s backward movement Di is now predominantly negative due to the trough that forms on the paddles backward face 11, D3 turns positive, and D2 become negative. Nevertheless, many of the advantages of the present invention are still realised due to the overall asymmetry in the horizontal plane perpendicular to the incident wave direction. Alternatively, the base platform may be fixedly disposed on a pontoon that is anchored to the bed of the body of water.
As illustrated in Figure 6b, the paddle may be located below the base device, but can also be positioned above the base device, or at any other orientation. The paddle is connected by a connecting rod 8 to a base device, which is preferably either directly above or below the paddle, but may be at any other orientation. Dolor de cabeza y de espalda . This vertical adjustment is preferably achieved using the buoyancy that results from the internal volume 5 of the device, which allows it to adjust automatically. In some embodiments, the parabolic or semi-elliptic form is approximated using a plurality of straight sections for the ease of manufacture and/or attachment to the wave power conversion apparatus. In an embodiment, the device includes an attachment point for attachment to the wave energy conversion apparatus. The internal volumes may also contain power conversion apparatus or desalination equipment such as osmotic membranes and filters.
The device is then able to hang vertically from the wave energy conversion apparatus if the attachment point is at the upper end, or stand generally upright in the water if the attachment point is at the lower end. In one embodiment, the attachment point is operable to adjust the relative spacing between the wave energy extraction device and the wave energy conversion apparatus.
Figures 8a, 8b and 8c show schematic plan, 3D and side elevation views, respectively, of an eighth wave paddle 24 embodying the present invention. The depth of the concavity in the backward face 11 will typically be within a range equal to the width of the paddle to about a quarter of the width of the paddle to ensure that a suitable curvature can be obtained.
Where the base device has more than one ram 16, the overall resistance of the paddle movement can be altered by either engaging or disengaging additional rams. The internal volume 5 can house additional structural members to provide even more structural strength and, if sealed, provides buoyancy that gives the paddle a generally vertical bias within the water.
Tipos De Dolor
Alternatively, as illustrated in Figure 6b, the paddle can be adapted to pivot relative to the base device 15 by providing a structural member 20 supported within the internal volume 5 and extending from the paddle to make a pivoting connection 22 with the base device 15. The ram 16 of the base device 15, for converting motion of the paddle into usable energy, may be connected to the structural member to avoid placing stress on the paddle itself. This seventh embodiment is identical to the sixth embodiment except that the paddle tips 2 are enlarged to incorporate structural members 26 for connection to the base device 15. A moveable or flexible connection exists between the structural members 26 and the paddle tips 2, which allows the vertical position of the paddle to be adjusted relative to base device 15 similar to the sixth embodiment above.
The embodiments described above have either constant curvature along the height of the paddle or the curvature tapers gradually to a straight edge along the height of the paddle. The shelf may be flat, but is preferably contoured in profile when attached to either the top or bottom of the device to provide a smooth transition towards the second surface. Figure lie, in particular, has a totally flat forward surface. Dolor de rodilla causas . This aspect of the invention provides a balance between having a curved paddle, which increases the energy absorbed from incoming waves, and a flat paddle, which is easier to connect to a hinge to constrain the paddle to rotating backwards and forwards with the waves. Consequently, the height of the paddle depends upon the water depth, wave conditions and the position of the base device. Figure 14b illustrates one method of locating a paddle in deep water where it would be difficult or impossible to fix a base device 15 directly to the seabed.
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Different parts of the paddle may have different general curvatures depending upon anticipated wave conditions and the base device design with smooth transitions between curvatures along the height of the paddle. The paddle design shown in these Figures is identical to that of Figure 2, but may instead be of any suitable design, including a totally flat design. In one embodiment, the paddle has a second surface, opposite the first surface, the second surface having a curvature which varies over the height of the paddle from a flat portion at the first end of the paddle to a convex portion at the opposite end of the paddle, the convex portion to reduce the resistance of the second surface to motion through water and preferably having a Gaussian profile.