I and 2 is an elongated hollow tube 10 having a closed top end 12 (Fig. The elongated member is hollow, with a closed top end and an open bottom end. During operation, pressure variations between the top and bottom ends of the vertically elongated, submerged member caused by over-passing surface waves cause relative movements of a piston (e.g., the member itself or a piston disposed within a hollow space within the member) for driving an energy converting transducer. In the submerged position shown in Fig. 2 and 3. Shown in Figs. The principle of operation of the inventive apparatus is that the changes in water energy level, which can be expressed as changes in pressure, due to the passage of wave peaks and troughs, is highest near the surface, and these pressure changes decay exponentially with depth below the surface.
Dolor Muscular Piernas
According to an aspect of the invention, there is provided an apparatus for use in a body of water for capturing energy from surface waves on said water body within a range of amplitudes up to a preselected maximum amplitude, the apparatus comprising a first member being reciprocally movable, as a function of and in response to overpassing waves, relative to a second member and along a path the length of which is a function of the amplitudes of said overpassing waves; and a base member for anchoring the apparatus on a floor of said water body, one of said first and second members being fixedly attached to said base member, said base member having a weight sufficient for maintaining said base member in contact with said floor during the presence of surface waves up to said preselected amplitude while allowing lifting of said base member off said floor during the passage of surface waves having a preselected second amplitude in excess of said first amplitude.
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2) and an open bottom end 14. In use, the tube 10 is fully submerged (as hereinafter described) in upright orientation within a body of water, e.g., an ocean having wind driven surface waves. Intrinsic protection against adverse surface conditions is provided by the normal submerged position of the apparatus. Ejercicios para el dolor de espalda baja . 1. Certain details of the apparatus are shown more clearly in Figs. In the preferred embodiment shown herein (similar to the arrangement shown in afore-cited, co-pending application S.N. The pressure variations between the top and bottom tube ends cause water (with an open ended tube, as disclosed in the aforecited co-pending application, S.N. In co-pending US Patent Applications S.N. 09/379421, filed 08/21/99 and S.N.
Note that, for each wave, the base 20 is first lifted and then pushed downwardly against the ocean bed 80, but not so violently to cause any damage. A principal feature of the inventive WECs is that they can accommodate a large range of different size surface waves producing large amplitudes of motion of the movable member while not damaging the apparatus or requiring an exceptionally large mechanical energy transducer. The float 16 preferably has a large buoyancy, and corresponds to a fixed structure rigidly mounted on the water bed but with the exception that some horizontal displacement of the float can occur in response to horizontal water movements. WECs, particularly in large bodies of water, is that the surface waves are highly variable both in amplitude and shape. A shock absorbing, or stroke buffering, mechanism is also provided for dissipating excessive kinetic energy absorbed by the system in response to excessively high amplitude waves.
The anchor base 20, along with its anchoring chains 21, is of sufficient mass to gravity-anchor the system firmly in place during normal usage, i.e., in connection with surface waves up to maximum amplitude with which the system is designed to safely work. An advantage of the system herein used is that it is based upon the use of buffer elements, e.g., the elastic blocks 66 which are commercially available in a wide range of sizes and with known stress-strain characteristics and which have been specifically developed for similar energy absorbing functions. Although movements of the skid base can occur, as described, the water above and beneath the anchor base tends to buffer movements thereof for partially reducing excessive acceleration and shocks.
Dolor Espalda Baja
Various system components, e.g., power converters, sensors and the like, are conveniently mounted on the anchor base 20, thus completely removed from wave action, but accessible, e.g., by a diver, or by a wire sling from the surface, for maintenance or replacement and the like. The pressurized oil (from opposite ends of the cylinder above and below the piston head within the cylinder) is led by pressure hoses 72 to a known transducer 76, e.g., a hydraulic motor driving an electric generator. The member is mounted on, in vertically movable relation with, a float disposed within the hollow member. 2) encloses the float 16 and, because the tube is vertically elongated, the float 16 is similarly elongated. With the most prevalent waves of anticipated amplitude, the movements of the tube 10 are insufficient to bring the shock absorbing assemblies 62a and 62b into contact with the fixed striker bar 60, and all the kinetic energy of the moving tube 10 is available for pumping the hydraulic cylinder 46 for generating useful energy.
Dolor De Muelas
The tube movement relative to the fixed float is the mechanism for converting wave energy (the force driving the tube) to useful energy. Dolor de brazo y espalda izquierdo . 3) to the piston 44 of an hydraulic cylinder 46 rigidly mounted on the column 24. (Other known mechanisms for converting the kinetic energy of the reciprocating tube to useful energy, e.g., an electric generator, can be used.) A feature of the present invention is that the tube 10 is connected to the hydraulic cylinder piston 44 by a stroke-reducing linkage. For capturing the kinetic energy present in the back-and-forth tilting movements of the column 24 (and the mechanisms mounted thereon), an energy transducer, e.g., a hydraulic cylinder 46a (Fig.
Dolor Sordo Significado
This invention relates to the conversion of mechanical energy present in waves on the surface of bodies of water to useful energy, and particularly to improvements in recently developed apparatus performing such function. When the pontoons are blown and full of air, the buoyancy of the pontoons, along with that of the float 16, is sufficient to float the entire apparatus shown in Fig. The anchor base 20, shown best in Fig. The system generates electrical power, preferably on station (to avoid pumping the hydraulic fluid over long distances) and some electrical power is stored in a battery on the anchor base for working the ballast tanks.
Tipos De Dolor Oms
A preferred securing of the float 16 to the anchor base 20 is by means of a tubular column 24 of steel (coated with a marine grade paint) secured to the anchor base by means of a universal joint 26 of known type. 2, the securing ring 38 and the bearing 34 are shown broken away with only a single spoke 36 being shown.
Dolor De Cabeza
FIGURE 4 is a side elevation of a lower portion of an inventive apparatus such as shown in Fig. 1, but showing a modification thereof; and FIGURE 5 is a schematic view of an upper portion of an inventive apparatus such as shown in Fig. Additional protection is provided by selectively ballasting the apparatus for further sinking the apparatus towards or to the water floor. A major problem faced by all systems intended for permanent installation in an ocean environment is protection and survival against ocean storms. Such steady pressure is essentially equal to the weight of water between the tube bottom and the mean water level. 3) having one end 52a pivotally secured to a pair of rods 54 pivotally secured to the ring 38 at the bottom end 14 of the tube 10 (Fig.
1 (but omitted from Fig. This pressurized water flow provides the opportunity to extract mechanical power from the wave energy. 3, is formed from steel beams terminating, on opposite sides of the base, in a pair of steel pontoons. Desired goals in the use of such WECs are that efficient operation be obtainable over a wide range of surface wave conditions and that the WECs can survive even the worst storm conditions. With still further larger waves, the pressure relief valves pop open for reducing pressure differentials driving the tube 10. Eventually, should the wave energy become so great that the energy dissipation means are no longer adequate to protect the system, water ballast is taken into the buoyancy tanks for submerging the tube to a depth safely below the surface waves. 09/379,421) to flow down the inside of the tube when a wave peak is over the top end, and water to flow up the inside of the tube when a wave trough is at the top of the tube.
As the surface waves pass over the tube 10, the tube bobs up and down relative to the float 16 for pumping the hydraulic cylinder 46 for pressuring oil therein. In operation, the tube 10, as previously described, moves up and down relative to the fixed-in-place column 24 in response to passing waves.