Gas 56 under pressure could be used to operate the turbine 46 or other additional pneumatic equipment (discussed below). Two or more water pumps 470 could be operated in series to increase lift potential (i.e., an elevation change denoted as elevation E). The ratio of time the drive valve 18 is closed to the duration of time the drive valve 18 is opened, i.e., the percent of flow, affects the performance of the hydropower system 10. Advantageously, a valve closed duration of about 60% of the flow period maximizes performance of the hydropower generator system in terms of reducing the time necessary to establish a desired vacuum. The air turbine generator assembly and control system can be located out of the river channel, e.g. 100 feet. The lower water velocity also results in reduced turbine tip speeds and thus increases turbine shaft requirements, e.g., costs, for a given power output.
The regulation of the vacuum level in the vacuum tank 40 provides control of the braking force on the water column 44 and thus controls the time required to reduce the water velocity in the drive pipe 12 downstream from the drive pipe valve 18 to zero or some other preset value.
The shaft, in turn, would be coupled to a hydraulic pump or other mechanical means of generating useful energy. The drive pipe 12 is disposed in a water source 20 where a dam 22 or other structure establishes a hydraulic gradient. An additional feature of the present invention relates to using the natural slope of a flowing water source to establish the hydraulic gradient. The method comprises using the hydraulic gradient to accelerate a quantity of water into an inlet of a drive pipe. The hydropower generator system can utilize the tidal flow to establish a hydraulic gradient sufficient to generate the desired vacuum for power generation.
Tipos De Dolor Oms
A further advantage of the present invention concerns the ability to operate with a minimal hydraulic gradient which, in many cases, eliminates the need for dams thus circumventing the problems associated with sediment build-up, fish movement, water temperature and costs associated with dams. An advantage of this modification is provided in the elimination of the need for a dam, thereby reducing environmental effects and construction costs associated with dams employed in conventional hydroelectric power systems.
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A further advantage is provided by the elimination of blade induced mortality in fish resulting from strike, shear, turbulence and pressure forces possible in conventional systems. These negative environmental effects manifest themselves in habitat destruction, obstructions to natural fish movement, poor water quality, over harvest and competition from non-indigenous species. A negative pressure relief device includes a riser section coupled to the drive pipe downstream from the valve.