A further object of the present invention according to one embodiment is to provide a slope or flare to the interior surface of the diffuser which improves flow characteristics and therefore perfonnance. In one such optional embodiment, the convergence of the interior walls to a narrow central portion is at a sharper or steeper angle 10 on the inlet end versus a more gradual, flared divergence of the interior walls of the hub 20 towards the outlet end. In this embodiment, 5 the hydro turbine generator comprises: a rotor comprising a hub and a plurality of hydro turbine blades extending radially outward from said hub; and a duct characterized by at least one of an inlet and an outlet end of said duct being oblong in elevation; 10 wherein a ratio of a cross-sectional outlet area of said duct to a cross-sectional inlet area of said duct is between 1.1 and 2.1. Other objects according to certain embodiments of the present invention include providing a highly efficient hydro turbine suitable for shallow river applications as well as deep ocean current locations with a relatively simple design which is environmentally 15 friendly.
Both the bearing systems and the oil sealing systems can be damaged by being overheated.
Insufficient cooling and very high temperatures not only risk the health of the bearing system; they can potentially destroy the oil seals as well. Bearing races are blued and damaged as well. Both the bearing systems and the oil sealing systems can be damaged by being overheated. When oil is overheated, it will oxidize and produce “coke,” a solid carbon-based residue that appears as a black caked-on sooty substance. Garrett laboratory testing has shown that peak temperatures in the center housing can be reduced by as much as 90°F (50°C) when the center housing is rotated to allow the hotter outlet water to escape from the higher port. Engine coolant (antifreeze) can be used without worry – water-cooled Garrett turbochargers are qualified during heat soak-back testing using a typical 50/50 mixture of water and antifreeze, at a temperature of 196°F (91°C). In order to get the greatest benefit from water-cooling, the turbocharger’s center housing should be rotated around the central axis (the shaft) so that the water ports are at an angle of approximately 20° from the horizontal.
However, an additional phenomenon known as “thermal siphoning” pulls water through the turbo’s center housing if the water lines are properly routed, even after the engine is shut off and the water pump is no longer pumping. It is true that during normal engine operation water flows through the turbocharger mostly due to pressure created by the engine’s water pump. In particular, underwater hydro turbines have been devised for use in unidirectional and bidirectional water flow applications, such as in river and ocean currents and tidal water flows. Many turbochargers are designed without water cooling ports and are sufficiently cooled by air and the lubricating oil that flows through them.
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The plastic (irreversible) deformation is known as ring collapse, and once the turbocharger cools down the piston ring seal has lost its springiness and cannot function as an oil seal any longer. If the turbocharger’s center housing has threaded ports on either side, at 90° from the oil inlet/outlet flanges, then it is water-cooled. The Davis reference 30 discloses a cylindrical housing or duct around the turbine, which accepted water flow from WO 2011/134090 PCT/CA2011/050264 2 either end, and included symmetrical hydrofoil turbine blades.. Como tratar el dolor muscular