The resulting total number of different natural frequencies of all component impellers 28, 30 and 50, and the half-value widths of their corresponding resonance curves, are both contemplated here to be sufficiently great to insure that, under the combined energy removing action of the overall impeller subsystem, and with decreasing radial distance measured outwardly from the vessel 4, the wave frequency spectral function specifying any given state of the open sea in statistical terms will gradually undergo, as a function of position on the water surface 5, an orderly and progressive maximal attenuation throughout the aforesaid very broad wave frequency band.
In thus effecting this substantial pressure difference, a very important advantage is gained through the novel annular geometry and the resulting spatial and functional economy of the present pressure transmission subsystem. 6), and is also rigidly attached at its two outer corners to upper and lower rigid circular bands 39 and 41, respectively, both of which are rigidly supported, in turn, by four struts 36. Furthermore, the typical working member 40, because of its aforesaid minimal volume-to-surface area ratio, must be, for structural reasons, of very high density, and therefore non-buoyant. 3, 4 and 6, the typical working member 40 possesses considerable internal structure through comprising, in the form illustrated here, a multiplicity of radiating vanes 35. Each vane 35 is rigidly attached at its inner edge to a central post 37 (FIG. In a manner analogous to that described with reference to the impellers 28 and 30, these four struts 47 serve in general, for each impeller 50, as a means of rigid support for an assemblage of rigidly interconnected component working members.
Tipos De Dolor Torácico
4. As a rigid structure carrying a rigidly interconnected assemblage of one or more component working members, each component impeller must have maximum vertical dimensions not exceeding its maximum depth of submergence below the water surface; it must be suitably mounted upon and suitably constrained by its seagoing means of support, in a special way permitting relative motion between the said impeller and its means of support that is characteristic of its kind; and it must be energetically coupled to a means on the said support for performing useful work. 1-3, the four struts 36 are assumed to be rigidly supporting only one working member in the case of each of the impellers 28 and 30. On the other hand, as illustrated in FIGS.
As has previously been explained, these two latter kinds of parameters are to be identified respectively with (i) the degree to which any given component working member functions as a fluid reaction surface experiencing a water movement drag force, and (ii) the degree to which that component working member functions as a fluid reaction volume experiencing a water movement inertial force. 3 and 4 when the two views shown therein are considered in combination and in their proper spatial relationships. FIG. 6 is a bottom view of the nonbuoyant working member shown in FIG. Even though imprecise, the foregoing analogy will serve a useful purpose in casting light on a certain rather subtle but very fundamental difference in underlying point of view between the system of Salter, for example, on the one hand, and the present invention, on the other. 1, 2 and 9, the typical working member 38 as employed in the impellers 50 is again essentially devoid of internal structure, just as it is when employed in the impellers 28 and 30. It is again buoyant by virtue of being either hollow or otherwise of very low density; and it is again maximally responsive to water movement inertial forces and only minimally responsive to water movement drag forces.
What is of paramount importance, however, is the fact that each of the aforesaid component working members may differ in kind from others, not only through possessing a different individual buoyancy which may be either positive, negative, or neutral, and through independently possessing a different individual gross external geometry (as viewed without regard to its possible internal structure) which may be either that of a frustum of a cone of revolution or that of a right prism whose bases are trapezoids, but also through independently possessing a different combination of values of the previously mentioned two distinct kinds of internal design parameters, each of which plays an additional major part in controlling the overall impeller function of the said component working member. 1-4, both the operating depths and the dimensions of the impellers 28 and 30 increase with increasing distance measured outwardly from the vessel 4. Dolor lumbar irradiado . The significance of this feature of the present invention, when implemented in combination with the above indicated opportunities for optimal choice of component working members for the individual impellers 28 and 30, and in combination with the previously mentioned mutually nested and closely ordered arrangement of these individual impellers throughout the annular region spanned by the outrigger 3, is discussed in detail elsewhere in this disclosure.
Dolor De Cabeza
In FIGS. 1 and 2, there is shown mounted on the outrigger 3, outwardly of the radial rows of impellers 28 and 30, a further circumferential series of impellers 50, all of overall neutral buoyancy and all identical. These component frameworks are generally of the nature of unit cells, progressively increasing both in size and in depth of submergence outwardly from the vessel 4, and forming annular subsets, each member unit cell of which exactly reproduces its circumferential next neighbor. 5), and by pipes 25 and 27 in the case of the impeller 30. For the impeller 28, whose overall buoyancy is positive, the position of stable equilibrium is vertically above its point of support 32. For the impeller 30, on the other hand, whose overall buoyancy is negative, the position of stable equilibrium is vertically below its point of support 34. The points of support 32 and 34 are to be understood as being universal pivots, illustrated in FIG.
Shown in some detail in FIG.
FIG. 4 is an enlarged schematic sectional view taken on the line 4–4 of FIG. FIG. 2 is a side elevational view of the overall system, taken along the line 2–2 of FIG. 3 and 4. Dolor de pie plano . Moreover, the natural frequencies of these four impellers will differ only slightly within each pair of impellers of the same kind 28 or 30, in inverse proportion to their slightly different respective vertical dimensions; whereas, on the other hand, the said natural frequencies will differ substantially between the two pairs of impellers of different kinds 28 and 30, in inverse proportion to their substantially different respective operating depths below the water surface 5, as shown in FIG. Shown in some detail in FIG. Even in such alternative proposals as those of Katory, Brady, and Tornqvist, referred to above, wherein the use of a linear array of directional wave energy absorbers is improved upon by the alternative use of a corresponding rectangular 2-dimensional array, it is still the idealized conditions of unidirectional wave propagation that are being addressed, and not the above mentioned, more complicated conditions of multidirectional wave propagation that are typically encountered at sea.
The interface between the generally annular pressure transmission subsystem and the generally annular impeller subsystem is composed of impeller driven pumps which can act as sources of either relatively positive or relatively negative pressure to be transmitted radially inwardly to chamber 6 via the ducts 20 and conduits 18. In this particular embodiment, wherein the impeller driven pumps act as sources of relatively negative pressure, water is withdrawn by these pumps from the ducts 20, rather than forced into them. In a similar manner, excessive wave induced stresses acting at the common interfaces between the vessel 4 and the outrigger 3, between the vessel 4 and the trusses 23, and between the trusses 23 and 33, are relieved by the use of such articulation means. Together, the hull 2 and the outrigger 3 form a single, integral, structurally sound, seaworthy overall platform subsystem 1 of adjustable overall buoyancy, capable of floating freely and always practically horizontally on the surface 5 of a large body of water such as an ocean, or at any desired subsurface depth up to 200 feet or more.
Accordingly, the inertial force component of any given oscillatory subsurface wave force experienced by the aforesaid submerged structure will be essentially proportional to the volume of water displaced by that structure; whereas the corresponding drag force component will be essentially proportional to the surface area of the structure. Now one of the previously discussed principal novel features of the present invention is based upon, and exploits for the first time in the context of the wave motor art, the fact that these oscillatory subsurface wave forces are composed of two distinct parts: a drag force and an inertial force (see, e.g., McCormick, supra, Chapter 3; or Muga and Wilson, supra, Chapter VII). As will be explained below, however, the three principal features of the present invention are precisely suited to treating just such problems as these, and to doing so in a wholly novel and fundamentally different way.
Furthermore, each of the component impellers 28, 30 or 50 that has any specified natural frequency, and that is located at any corresponding site of operation within the aforesaid annular region surrounding the vessel 4, when also devised in such a way as to selectively execute a definite, predetermined, and operationally uniquely effective corresponding combination of oscillatory reaction movements in response, respectively, to the oscillatory drag forces and the oscillatory inertial forces exerted thereon by the ambient water movement, is intended to be capable of thereby executing a resonant forced oscillatory motion of maximal magnification factor in simultaneous tuned response to all component progressive sinusoidal surface waves of just one particular corresponding wave period T and of arbitrary wave heights H, traversing the said annular region in arbitrary directions. In this case, then, there exists at any given instant and at any given point within the aforesaid submerged structure an oscillatory inertial force per unit volume, acting upon that structure, which is directed oppositely to, and is proportional to, the oscillatory centrifugal acceleration that would have been experienced by certain water particles, had they not been displaced from that particular unit volume at that particular point.
In typical sea states, moreover, these oscillatory subsurface wave forces will in general possess an almost completely random vector sum that in the course of time will momentarily assume any given direction. But in so doing, the present invention, unlike the Scripps and Salter proposals, completely avoids the further serious disadvantage that is inherent in all wave energy extracting devices which, in order that they might have a broad band response, are made nonresonant at the cost of failing to exploit the resonance phenomenon as a means of wave power amplification. Recently, however, new proposals in the last group comprising offshore power plants, to which the present invention relates, have been increasing markedly both in numbers and in sophistication.
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- Extender spring – 25 a. Extender spring extended
- Estreitar a mandíbula ou chiar os dentes
- Para empezar, lava las hojas de orégano y deja que se sequen
- Poner la palma hacia arriba o hacia abajo, 10 veces
- Rigidez en la espalda
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As previously described with reference to the impellers 28 and 30, suitable pumping devices are provided for the impellers 50, as illustrated in FIGS. Instead, a conical “box,” labeled by the numeral 46, is used in the drawings to illustrate each individual impeller driven pumping device. The ocean or other large body of water which surrounds the overall seagoing system may be loosely compared to an infinite reservoir of heat energy, whose temperature loosely represents the prevailing sea state. No. 858,087, filed Dec.