US6132180A – Automatic Pumping Apparatus Utilizing Wave Motion – Google Patents

In locations where the wavelength of waves appearing on the water surface varies significantly, there may be arranged a number of branched pumping pipes connected to a single main pumping pipe and provided with respective sink-and-float members having diameters that are different from each other and equal to a 1/2 of possible different wavelengths respectively. While each of the illustrated embodiments comprises two sink-and-float members and two pistons, the number of sink-and-float member and piston combinations may alternatively be one, three or more than three. When a pumping apparatus is to be installed at a site where the sea is deep, a required number of steel pipes may be driven into the bottom in place of forming a concrete base so that the apparatus may be mounted on the steel pipes in order to reduce the overall cost of construction as machine power can significantly replace man power in this type of construction.

Dolor Espalda Pecho

Wording “wave height lower limit” means a permissible or selected minimum wave height (as adjusted or calculated for the corresponding wavelength) for a piston coupled to a sink-and-float member to generate pressure in order to fill the related pumping pipe with water and is equal to a 1/2 of the specified wave height. This apparatus comprises a tower body erected in the bottom of the sea and projecting from the water surface, a reservoir tank arranged at the top of the tower body, a plurality of pumping tanks arranged around the tower body, pistons vertically slidably arranged within the respective pumping tanks, floats coupled to the respective pistons via a link mechanism so as to move the pistons up and down in accordance with the tidal movement, said pumping tanks being provided with respective sea water inlet ports arranged at a height located below the sea level at high tide and provided with a sea water intake valve for introducing sea water, and exhaust pipes arranged at the top of the respective pumping tanks in order to keep the pumping tanks in communication with the reservoir tank and provided with respective check valves in order to block any reverse flow of sea water from the reservoir tank to the pumping tanks.

Dolor Muscular Cadera

The check valve 15 is located near the top of the branched pumping pipe 11. Thus, the sink-and-float member is so designed as to show a height above the water level when the sea is flat and has no waves greater than the wave height upper limit. 2 is so designed that each piston 8 is operated to pump up water as the corresponding sink-and-float member 1 falls or water is pumped up, utilizing the weight of the sink-and-float member. For the preparation of a pumping apparatus according to the invention, several values have to be determined in advance, including (1) the height by which water is to be pumped up, (2) the horizontal cross sectional area, the height and the weight of each sink-and-float member and (3) the horizontal cross sectional area of each piston and the length of each cylinder. Finally, while the horizontal cross sectional area of each piston is determined in general in inverse proportion to the height by which water is pumped up relative to the horizontal cross sectional area of each sink-and-float member, it may alternatively be determined as a function of the specified wave height or the wave height lower limit.

Additionally, since the cross sectional area of each piston is made small relative to that of the corresponding sink-and-float member, the pumping height can be determined at will so that head waters can be stored up to approximately 50%, making the apparatus adaptable to a wide range of applications. The height of the sink-and-float members needs to be determined by adding the weight corresponding to the wave height upper limit and the weight corresponding to the part of the height of the sink-and-float members corresponding to the weight of water that can offset the frictional resistance generated between each sink-and-float member and the related support members and each cylinder and the corresponding piston. The wave height upper limit is determined as a function of the height of the sink-and-float member 1 hidden under the water level in such a way that the weight of the sink-and-float member 1 hidden under the water level when the sea is flat and has no waves is equal to a weight corresponding to 1/2 of the wave height upper limit plus the part of the weight corresponding to height of the sink-and-float member 1 corresponding to the weight of the sink-and-float member 1 that can offset the frictional resistance generated between the sink-and-float member 1 and the piston 8 as the latter moves downward.

Dolor Muscular Piernas

FIG. 1 illustrates a first embodiment of automatic pumping apparatus utilizing wave motion according to the invention and comprising sink-and-float members 1 placed on the surface of water and vertically movably supported by respective support frames 2 so as to move up and down according to the wave motion of water.

If the horizontal cross sectional area of each sink-and-float member is S0, that of each piston is S1, the specified height of a wave motion is h and the remaining height for each sink-and-float member to rise or fall after the first operation of the piston is h1, the height of the water pumped up by the piston for the first time h-h1 and the corresponding volume of the pumped up water are defined by the equation below.

Tipos De Dolor

The above defined time and volume will be calculated for the apparatus of FIG. Now, the operation of the embodiment of automatic pumping apparatus will be described. It should be noted that the above value is based on the assumption that each component operates at an efficiency of 100% and it should be multiplied by the product of the efficiencies of all the components to obtain a practical value. FIG. 2 shows a second embodiment of automatic pumping apparatus according to the invention, where those components that are identical or similar to those of FIG. A pumping apparatus according to the invention may be designed in such a way that the apparatus can be remotely controlled and the wave conditions of the installation site and troubles that may occur in the check valves, pistons and other components can be monitored or detected remotely.

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However, the pumping efficiency of such a proposed known pumping apparatus is very low because it operates only once for a cycle of tidal movement of sea water and it is impossible to pump up water to a height of 100 m or so, making the apparatus poorly applicable to industrial use, because it was designed without considering the ratio of the cross sectional area of the floats to that of the pistons. With such an arrangement, the generator can be operated by circulating fresh water to form a quasi-closed system, requiring supply of fresh water only at a reduced rate, so that dirt may not enter the circulation system, making it unnecessary to use a double structure for the check valves. The lower end of each cylinder 4 is open and protected by a net member 7 so that debris may not enter the cylinder 4. Each cylinder 4 contains therein a piston 8 facing upward and slidable in the cylinder, said piston 8 being connected to the corresponding sink-and-float member 1 via a connector rod 9 so that the piston 4 slidingly moves up and down in the cylinder in accordance with the movement of the sink-and-float member 1. Que es bueno para el dolor muscular despues del ejercicio . The maximum stroke of the cylinders 4 in the pistons 8 is determined by taking the maximum difference of sea level between high and low tides and possible wave heights into consideration.