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1 and 2. An air filled balloon 100 is connected by a tether 102 to a pulley 104 that is anchored firmly to the seabed 106. The system can be anchored to the bottom of any suitable body of water including, for example, a sea, a lake, river, or reservoir. Operation of the system 90 is shown in Figs. The daily variations in price of electricity are generally relatively stable, but some real time tracking of price would allow for optimal operation of the energy storage system. In principal, thousands of balloons could be arrayed in a large field on the sea bed in order to allow storage of any amount of energy. The bearings in the system must be very strong as the forces on the cable can be very large. Larger systems can be built by arraying many balloons 100 over a large area of sea-bed and connecting all their tethers to one or more generators.

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This would give it a volume of 4/3π103 or approximately 4190 meters cubed, or 4,190,000 liters, and a surface area of 1260 meters squared. RT where P is the absolute pressure of the gas, V is the volume of the gas, n is the number of moles of gas, R is the universal gas constant, and T is the absolute temperature. In aerial systems, any gas with lower density that air would be appropriate. The buoyant power storage systems can be coupled mechanically to hydro power systems, nuclear power systems, or to any power system where rotary motion is used to spin a generator and make electricity. Aerial systems, such as described below, will need to be designed so that hydrogen (or helium) inside the balloons does not diffuse out through the skin or does so at an acceptable slow rate. Variable wind can either increase or decrease system efficiency, and can be used to generate power if the system is reeled out (discharged) when winds are high and reeled in when winds are low (charged).

The gravitational acceleration at sea level is approximately equal to 9.8 Newtons per kilogram.

This can potentially increase the energy storage capacity of ground based systems to the point of being viable. Yoga para dolor lumbar . Even if relatively low efficiency components are employed, a round trip efficiency of over 70% would be easily achieved and this level is sufficient for the purpose of usefully storing energy. The gravitational acceleration at sea level is approximately equal to 9.8 Newtons per kilogram. In open energy markets where the cost of electricity fluctuates, a computer system could track power cost on the grid and begin charging the system when energy costs fell below a certain level and would begin discharging for the purpose of selling energy back to the grid when energy costs jumped above a certain level. This DC power would then be fed into an inverter which is grid tied. This is advantageous because if the force is constant then the rate at which the reel 108 winds and unwinds can be constant as well.

In a first aspect, the present disclosure provides an energy storage system, which comprises a buoyant object to be disposed in a body of water, the body of water overlying a seafloor; a tether to secure to the buoyant object; a motor operationally connectable to the tether to lower the buoyant object in the water to obtain a lowered buoyant object, the motor being disposed outside the water; a generator operationally connectable to the tether, the generator to generate power upon release of the lowered buoyant object and a rise of the buoyant object in the water, the generator being disposed outside the water; and a pulley disposed on the seafloor, the pulley to guide the tether from the motor and the generator to the buoyant object. In a third aspect, there is provided an energy storage system that comprises: a buoyant object to be disposed in a fluid; a tether to secure to the buoyant object; and a mechanical unit including at least one of a hand crank, a water turbine, and a wind turbine, the mechanical unit being operationally connectable to the tether to lower the buoyant object in the fluid to obtain a lowered buoyant object; a generator operationally connectable to the tether, the generator to generate power upon release of the lowered buoyant object and a rise of the buoyant object in the fluid, the generator being disposed outside the water; and a pulley to guide the tether from the motor and the generator to the buoyant object.

1 14 and balloon 100 drop and there is slack 150 in the tether 102. This slack 150 is taken up by the reel 108 by turning it in the direction indicated by the arrow 152 and pulling the tether in the direction indicated by the arrow 154. Taking up the slack 150 with the reel 108 is done by a motor, not shown. A buoyant body made using stiff walled pipe sections with caps, or another pressure vessel, can be used in place of a balloon 100 in any of the submerged balloon energy storage systems described in present disclosure, and the word balloon 100 can be taken to refer to either a balloon or any other suitable buoyant body or object.

The ceramic alloy created by combining a metal alloys of boron, aluminum and magnesium (AIMgBH), commercially referred to as BAM is a very low friction material which is also extremely hard (it is presently the second hardest known material after diamond). The balloon material can be treated using a process to inhibit diffusion of air or water through the skin of the balloon.

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Any strong cable or tether material can be used. The balloons could be fitted with valves so that, from time to time, they can be lifted to the surface and a servicing boat with an onboard pump can restore the necessary air pressure to the balloons and remove any condensation from within the balloons.

For example, three reels could couple, one at a time, to a single motor. The reels could also couple to a single generator, one at a time. The motors and generators are likely to be one of the most costly components of this system, and as such it might be desirable to have systems where a number of balloon, tethers, and reels can all couple to a smaller number of motors and generators. The advantage is that all the complex components of the system are on land where they are not exposed to corrosion due to being submerged and furthermore they are easily accessible for maintenance.

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Two means of energy storage that do not use chemical mechanism to store energy are pumped water energy storage and pumped air energy storage. Fig. 11 shows an example with a hydropower turbine that has a mechanical connection to the reel of a submerged energy storage system. Ejercicios para mejorar el dolor de espalda . Additionally, either the motor or the generator, or a combined unit, could be built directly into the reel with no shaft or rod required for mechanical coupling.

This allows the system to share the same electrical generator and alleviates the need for a motor, but requires a mechanical connection to the electrical generation system be made. Another embodiment of the present disclosure is shown at Fig. An embodiment of an aerial based buoyancy energy storage system is shown in Fig. The hydro power can be used to directly reel in the balloon 100 for energy storage, or the balloon 100 can directly spin the generators in the absence of hydro water flowing through the generators. For example, the balloon polymer can be aluminized to inhibit diffusion or air or water through the balloon or balloon skin. This is because the buoyant force in water is much greater than in air, owing to air’s low density compared to water.

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The system can further comprise a reel, the reel to connect to the motor- generator unit, the reel to reel-in a length of the tether upon being turned by the motor- generator unit to lower the buoyant object in the fluid, the reel to reel-out the length of the tether and to turn the motor-generator unit upon the rise of the buoyant object in the fluid. The system can further comprise a reel, the reel to connect to the motor and to the generator. This requires the construction of high-pressure gas pipelines to connect pumps and turbines on shore to the deep underwater storage bladder. Hydrogen is likely to be the most economical and best performing gas for aerial based systems. This is shown in the example of Fig.

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Fig. 3a-3c shows the system of Fig. The potential 500,000,000 Joules of stored energy in the system 90 is equal to roughly 139 kiloWatt-hours (kWh). More particularly, the present invention relates to storing energy by doing work against the buoyant force on an object, such as a balloon, when it is immersed in a fluid such as water or air. Without a reliable way to store energy from intermittent energy sources, alternative energy sources will remain marginal. The sum of the forces 162 on the balloon 100 will tilt the tether 102 off to one side, depending on the direction of the incoming current.