Preferably, the reactive body comprises a predetermined mass density distribution along its length between its top end and bottom end, the mass density being high with a specific gravity that is substantially greater than one along and toward the bottom end and the mass 25 density being low with a specific gravity of substantially less than one along and toward the top end of the reactive body. Preferably, the reactive body has an overall specific gravity of approximately one but with 10 a non-uniform mass density distribution profile along its length comprising at least a bottom portion at or toward its bottom end having a mass density substantially greater than the mass density at or toward its upper end to thereby provide the reactive body with a low to medium rotational inertia in pitching about the center of rotation axis. 30 SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION In a first aspect, the present invention broadly consists in a self-reacting and floating wave energy converter for extracting useful energy from wave motion in a body of liquid 3 comprising: an active float that is arranged to float substantially toward or on the surface of the liquid, and being arranged to both heave and surge in response to wave motion acting on the active float; an elongate reactive body longitudinally extending between a top end and a bottom end, and having a center of mass located at or toward its bottom end and 5 below its center of buoyancy such that it is arranged to be suspended in a substantially upright vertical position and substantially submerged state into the liquid below the surface, and the reactive body having sufficient surface area and length extending into the liquid from the surface such that it pitches about a center of rotation axis located at or toward its bottom end in response to wave motion acting on the reactive body; the active float and 10 reactive body being pivotably coupled at or toward the top end of the reactive body for pivotable movement relative to each other about a single pivot axis in response to heaving and surging of the active float and pitching of the reactive body caused by wave motion in the body of liquid, and wherein the active float and reactive body are pivotably coupled to allow the active float to fully rotate 3600 about the single pivot axis; and a power output 15 system that is operatively driven by the pivotable movement about the pivot axis to capture the useful energy.
The main float is arranged to extract wave energy via its heave and pitch motions. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS 20 Preferred embodiments of the invention will be described by way of example only and with reference to the drawings, in which: Figure la shows an idealised water motion under a monochromatic free surface wave; 25 Figure lb shows a time graph of typical resolved horizontal and vertical wave motion in real seas; Figure 1c shows a schematic diagram of a wave energy converter of the invention while resting in still water and utilising slack mooring cables attached at the bottom of a reactive body of the wave energy converter; 30 Figure 2 shows a cross-sectional view of an active float of the wave energy converter through line AA from direction B of Figure 1c; Figures 2a-2c show alternative hydrodynamically shaped forms of the active float of the wave energy converter from the same view as Figure 1c; 13 Figure 3 shows a cross-sectional view of the reactive body of the wave energy converter through line CC from direction D of Figure 1c; Figures 3a-3c show alternative hydrodynamically shaped forms of the reactive body of the wave energy converter from the same view as Figure 1c, with the reactive bodies of Figures 5 3b and 3c having semicircular drag plate stabilisers; Figure 4 shows a schematic diagram of the wave energy converter of Figure 1 c in storm survival mode; Figure 4a shows a schematic diagram of the basic motions described by the active float and reactive body when subjected to idealised wave motion, the active float and reactive 10 body being shown in positions corresponding to a wave peak; Figure 4b shows a functional depiction of the basic motions described by the active flow and reactive body when subjected to idealised wave motions; Figure 5 shows a schematic diagram of one form of heave and pitch motion of the active float and reactive body of the wave energy converter of Figure 1c over a typical passing 15 wave cycle; Figure 6 shows a schematic horizontal plan view diagram of a wave energy conversion system having a chain of linked wave energy converters of the invention; Figure 7 shows a schematic diagram of a wave energy converter of the invention that utilises a flexible reference frame that is fixed to the seabed; 20 Figures 8a-8e show perspective, side, front, and plan views respectively of a first preferred embodiment of the wave energy converter of the invention; Figures 9a-9e show perspective, side, front, and plan views respectively of a second preferred embodiment of the wave energy converter of the invention; Figure 10 is a block diagram of a proffered form of power output system of the wave 25 energy converter that utilises active torque loading; and Figure 11 is a graph depicting the simulated power output generated between a non pitching point absorber and a wave energy converter of the invention that is arranged to pitch in response to wave motion acting on the reactive body.
Dolor Muscular Bayer
The heave and pitch motions are detected by the relative rotary displacement at the two pivotal connections which are in turn coupled to two rotary vane pumps so that the motion can 10 converted into oil-hydraulic power for an oil-motor to drive an electrical generator. The reactive body 14 may also float up and down in a vertical direction, and the phase of this motion may be controlled to extend the pivoting action about pivot axis 16. The power output system is operatively driven by the wobbling 30 motion of the active float 12 and reactive body 14 and more specifically the relative pivotable movement or motion between them about the pivot axis 16, as indicated generally by arrows Ij, to generate, for example, electrical energy.
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30 Preferably, the reactive body comprises one or more controllable floatation devices at or toward its top end, such that the floatation devices maybe controlled to increase or 6 decrease buoyancy of the reactive body as required. Direct drive point absorbers minimise these limitations as the response characteristics of the device can be largely controlled by the power take-off loading applied to the device. Known wave energy conversion devices generally fall into two categories, namely wavelength devices and point absorbers. In particular, the passing waves excite the heave and pitch buoy to oscillate in two directions, namely vertically for heave motion and horizontally for pitch motion.