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Cómo levantar con dolor de espalda mediano / Regentint.com The propulsion system of the invention creates thrust for rigid foils at zero forward velocity while existing foil propulsion systems cannot. Regardless of the mode of oscillating foil propulsors, all previous oscillating foils have no relative angular displacement between the foil’s pivot axis and the rotational shaft, i.e., there is no slip rotation. This essence of the technique is to permit rotational motion between the foil member and the pivot shaft that supports the foil member and to provide a damping torque, which can either be controllable or constant, depending on the application, to offset dynamic torque affecting the foil during operation. John Coxon and Andrew Claughton disclosed the development of an auto-pitch propeller in the publication “The Development of a Self Pitching Propeller System”, (RINA), but the auto-pitch propeller uses the self-pitching technique without any damping torque. A more precisely regulated damping control requires an actuation mechanism and an encoder.

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A simple passive mechanism control can be achieved, for example, by only a piece of rubber or spring that is attached on the pivot shaft internal of the foil member (permitting relative motion between the foil member and the pivot shaft) or external of the foil member (if there is no relative motion between the foil member and the pivot shaft). Each foil member 16 is attached to a mounting means 22 in the form of a pivot shaft 24, which in turn is connected to a drive means contained within the vehicle 10 or within a separate pod section 26, which in turn is mounted to the vehicle 10. The pivot shaft 24 extends along an axis K which is normally allocated near or generally coincides with the aerodynamic center of the foil member, although such positioning is not essential to operability. This relative rotational motion of the foil member about its pivot axis can be achieved either by relative rotation between the pivot shaft and the foil member or by relative rotation between the pivot shaft and the thruster unit itself.

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Means are also provided for damping the rotational movement of each foil member relative to its respective mounting means during the oscillatory movement of the foil members. That is, the motor or engine rotational speed and direction do not need to be changed to produce a regulated thrust. Thus, when the motor is operating, the translation means will operate on each pivot shaft to move that shaft in a direction N normal to the desired direction D of movement of the vehicle. The drive means can take the form of an electric motor (for example), not shown, which is connected to suitable means such as gears and bell cranks or other types of transmission arrangements for translating rotary motion into linear motion. Dolor lumbar colchon . With the present invention the movement of one foil member 16 will be opposite to the movement of the other foil member, such that the movements are out of phase relative to each other.

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The effect of the damping means is to resist the pitching movement of the foil member as it rotates on its pivot shaft 24 and in particular to offset hydrodynamic forces imposed on the foil member by the fluid medium in which the propulsion system operates. FIG. 2 shows in schematic fashion an end view of the basic features of the present propulsion system. FIG. 3 shows in schematic fashion a perspective view of a the system of FIG.

FIG. 4 shows schematically a top plan view of the configuration of FIG. In the orientation shown in FIG. 1, 2 and 3 the drive pod section 26 is shown as being cylindrical in form. As the pinion gear 28 rotates so will the pod section 26 thereby adjusting the direction of the thrust vector relative to the vehicle 10. Of course, other means of altering the thrust vector direction could be implemented, including for example having a pinion gear engaging a rack on the exterior of the pod section or having a drive gear engaging a driven gear connected to a shaft coaxial of the pod section. The foil member need not be as shown in these figures; it could take other forms, including a simple flat plate, while still acting as a lifting surface.

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1 six propulsion systems 14 are visible, shown in two groups of three such systems spaced apart longitudinally of the vehicle. TECHNICAL FIELD OF THE INVENTION This invention relates to propulsion system based on the principle of thuniform motion and is particularly applicable to underwater, and aerial, movement of vehicles. Enabling both pitch and heave motion for an oscillating foil requires a complicated control mechanism, which is too complicated and of low efficiency to be used in practical application. The thrust and efficiency created by the pair of oscillating foil members is considerably improved over that created by a single foil member as utilized in known systems.

Since each system 14 is capable of being independently rotated about its mounting axis it is readily seen that an infinite number of thrust vectors operating on the vehicle can be created, meaning that the vehicle can move readily in any direction whatsoever, not in just a longitudinal direction. When a traditional rigid oscillating foil (infinite damping torque) has only heave motion, it produces nearly zero thrust at low advance speed. By controlling the damping torque about the pivot shaft either electronically or mechanically or both, thrust production can be regulated at a constant oscillating frequency and heave amplitude. With an oscillating foil or wing, both pitch and heave motions of the foil member need to be controlled, periodically and precisely, to produce the maximum possible efficiency and thrust. In the present invention the foil members create a “cushion” of air therebetween as they approach each other during an operating cycle, thus the “WIG effect”, and thrust is created as the compressed air is expelled from the zone between the foil members.

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A cushion of air is created between the wing and the ground. In the latter case there would be no relative motion between the pivot shaft and the foil member. A rigid oscillating foil member with a zero damping torque, about its pivot axis will produce nearly zero thrust. This propulsor uses the undulation mode (eel’s propulsion mode) so it does not produce thrust if the foil is rigid. The propulsion mode of this present invention may be characterized as being “thuniform”, although that is primarily a biological term that is used generally to describe the propulsion of a fish. The thuniform mode is widely used by fast swimmers such as shark, dolphin, tuna and whale. Dolor muscular en el omoplato . In fact, in the embodiment as illustrated, there would be a fourth system associated with each group, for a total of eight systems 14. The systems of each group would be separated from each other by 90°. Of course, depending on the particular application more or fewer such systems could be mounted to the vehicle.

This invention provides a heave only oscillation foil with a regulated thrust at all speeds.

Such movement is found in nature with fast moving fish or mammals such as tuna, sharks, dolphins and whales. Oscillating or flapping foil propulsors were inspired by the nature of marine swimmers. Distinguished from all the existing oscillating foil propulsors, the foil member rotates about the pivot shaft. From the foregoing it is clear that the present invention provides a means for improving the efficiency and the thrust production of a propulsion system using oscillating foil members. This invention provides a heave only oscillation foil with a regulated thrust at all speeds. The shaft that supports the foil moves only up and down (a heave motion).

The damping means generate damping forces or torque that offset dynamic forces or torque imposed on the foil members by the fluid medium during operation of the propulsion system. Piramidal y dolor lumbar . Two propulsion modes are mainly applied: the undulation mode and the thuniform mode. The present invention operates as well on the principle of “wing-in-ground-effect” (WIG effect), created by the oscillatory movement of the two foil members in counter phase. In addition the present invention is based on the principles associated with a “WIG effect” as mentioned hereinabove. The foil member can be either flexible or rigid. If the pivot axis is located far behind the aerodynamic center then the damping torque will have the effect of decreasing the pitch angle when the foil member is at its equilibrium position and of increasing the pitch angle when the foil member is at the upper limit of its oscillatory motion. As is seen, the damping torque applied to the mounting shaft 24, opposed to the direction of rotation, has the effect of increasing the pitch angle when the foil member 16 is at its central or equilibrium position and of decreasing the pitch angle when the foil member is at the upper limit of its oscillatory motion.

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This is the pivot or pitch axis for the foil member. The instantaneous hydrodynamic angle of attack of the foil member is controlled by both the damping torque and the dynamic force on the foil. The systems 14 are mounted to the body of the vehicle and are intended to provide thrust at any angle about the mounting axis thereof, through a full 360°. The mounting axis will typically be normal to the longitudinal axis A of the vehicle. By controlling the degree of damping provided to the foil members it is in turn possible to control the pitch or angle of attack of each foil member during its oscillatory movement.

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It is also understood that the damping means could be external to the foil member. 4 it will be seen that a damping member 32 surrounds the shaft 24. The damping member is connected both to the shaft 24 and to the internal structure of the foil member 16. The damping means can be any form of resilient material including, for example, rubber. 2 the pivot shafts 24 will move vertically, with the direction of desired movement D being towards the left edge of the page. The invention will now be described with reference to the drawings. CROSS REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS This application claims the benefit of Provisional Patent Application No. Accordingly, the protection to be afforded this invention is to be determined from the claims appended hereto.