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The list may also include electro-thermally powered actuators such as NiTi wire elements and thermo-chemically activated motion (TCAM tm) devices, however the difficulty of providing rapid cooling of these latter devices would relegates them to very low frequency operation. A general purpose bi-directional rotary motor using oriented fiber elements is described. In this general position, transducer 137 will oscillate in short strokes. In the pictured position, blocks 142 and 143 are pushed out of the sides of 139 by stationary spreader 140 so that their oriented fiber surfaces 144 and 145 are in intimate contact with tapes 8 and 7 respectively. This action will force shuttle 139 over fixed spreader 141 simultaneously disengaging from spreader 140. Thus blocks 142 and 143 will retract while blocks 146 and 147 will engage the drive tapes 7 and 8 to drive in the opposite direction. It cyclically operates a force device 127 with low friction pads 129 at the center of two leaf springs 130 which can simultaneously force both tapes 7 and 8 against friction wheel 126. A rotary solenoid (not shown) oscillates friction wheel 126 continuously through a short angle at the same frequency as the force device 127 is driven by linear transducer 128. It can be appreciated that the window can be driven either up or down by judicious selection of the phase relationship between the motion of the friction wheel 126 and the force device 127. For example, if transducer 128 pulls thereby forcing tapes 7 and 8 against wheel 126 only during periods when it is moving clockwise, the window will go up.

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Cómo conseguir clientes para una Clínica de Fisioterapia Thus friction ring 160 will be driven clockwise and tape 7 will be driven right while tape 8 will be driven left; the window will go up as the tapes are forced by low friction pads 122 via springs 123 into intimate contact with the high friction outer surface of friction ring 160. By shifting the operating point of shuttle ring 161 counterclockwise through angle A and oscillating there, blocks 169 and 168 will be engaged while 163 and 164 are disengaged. Spreader 140 has overcome the force of spring 149 which tends to pull blocks 142 and 143 in. 2. It has a top plate 44 with access hole 43 through which right wiper arm 42 is coupled. Dolor lumbar cadera y pierna . FIG. 2 is a detail of a window regulator using a pair of pull type solenoids 21 and 22 with return springs 23 acting on spring flanges 24. A limit plate engages flange 24 on solenoid 22 to limit travel in the drive directions to the desired stroke.

Mirror 86 is adhesively bonded to backing plate 87. Spring 88 forces plate 91 with spherical edge 92 against the inside of notched hemisphere 93 which is bonded to plate 87. Disk 89 (with a depression) engages the end of spring 88 and is attached to shaft 90 which fits in notches 94. Driver subassembly 95 has three mutually orthogonal oscillatory transducers, 96 for contact, 97 for left and right movement and 98 for up and down adjustments. 12. When this button is pushed out by contact transducer 96, it relieves pressure from around the rim of 99 and permits either transducer 97 or 98 to move ball section 93 which adjusts the mirror 86 relative to housing 106. 111, 112 and 113 are spring wires which are rigid axially but quite flexible in a plane perpendicular to each wire. The frequency of operation can vary from subsonic to ultrasonic depending on the response time of the particular transducer.

To compensate for their slow response time, a subsonic frequency has been used to drive them. Silicone thermal grease has been used to some advantage as have liquid immersed NiTi wires. Cable machines have been traditionally used. The same approach can be used to convert the planar drive mechanism of FIG. The drive transducer 31 drives shell 35 horizontally through leaf spring 33. This too is a double-acting driver action similar in operation and phase reversal requirements to the window regulator. It is yet another object of this invention to illustrate the use of a single rotary transducer in a window regulator. The oscillatory transducers that can be used for these applications vary greatly, and the ideal transducer may yet be developed or may be a modified version of the ones to be mentioned. A wide range of electrically powered transducers are utilized to drive specialized actuators for automotive applications in this invention.

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Engine vacuum driven devices or oscillatory transducers using compressed air (as found on brake systems of large trucks and busses) are also possibilities for vehicle applications with simple electrical interfaces provided by 3-way solenoid valves. It is also an object of this invention to illustrate a molded version of the improved frictional structure. It is another object of this invention to provide an improved power antenna drive mechanism with manual operation in case of failure. Demonstration models of a power window, a windshield wiper mechanism, and a power antenna use pull solenoids with return springs as the transducer of choice.

For the demo system, the drive tapes 7 and 8 are sections of 300 ohm TV antenna twin lead; although its wear characteristics and temperature behavior are probably far from ideal, the degree of flexibility at room temperature is about right. Dolor en la parte externa de la rodilla . Since the alloy process can be used to determine the transition temperature to some extent, a higher temperature wire will cool faster to below the transition temperature given a certain ambient temperature. 5% of their length when heated above a certain transition temperature. Fixed baffle 17 is just a guide to direct the loose tail of drive tape 8 when the window pane 2 is in the lower regions. Leaf spring 14 which is oscillated at the same frequency (in or out of the page) then moves a particular tape in or out based on the phase relationship of the relative motions.

The low friction surface of the bracket 201 now impinges against the outside of the metal frame 203 which should result in an even lower friction coefficient as compared to bracket against tape. Sa is another DPDT momentary switch which selects up or down adjustment of the preselected mirror. For cases in which the left and right wipers must transverse different arcs on each stroke, pulley 38 can be a different diameter from 37. The actuator mechanism would be placed on the larger of the two pulleys.

The planar design of the regulator using a pair of transducers of smaller diameter than the motor they replace makes the design compatible with shallower door panels. The apparatus of this invention offers two new alternatives that should approach the performance of the linear motor design but at much lower cost. A second version using a powered curtain puller that rides on the track uses a DC gear motor. It is another object of this invention to use power electronics to facilitate the mechanical simplification of motor vehicle accessories. It is yet another object of this invention to provide an improved power side view mirror mechanism and drive electronics. It is yet another object of this invention to describe a manufacturing method for producing a DSES. It is another object of this invention to describe the method of Dynamic System Engagement Switch (DSES) techniques to permit the direct use of ultrasonic transducers with very short strokes.

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It is also an object of this invention to describe a curtain machine using dual piezoelectric thrusters. Designs of very long-stroke curvilinear actuators, such as curtain handling machines, are also presented. These limit sensors may be contact closures, reed switches, Hall-effect sensors or photo sensors as are common in the art. If the auto industry is to migrate to the use of oscillatory transducers, it may take some time before the ideal transducer is designed, qualified, and ready for production. Dolor muscular durante el embarazo . This shape may be advantageous. FIG. 16 shows a window 2 again driven by tapes 7 and 8, but in this case two orthogonal oscillatory transducers are used. These machines are used to open and close curtains for theaters, for window shading, or patient isolation in hospital environments. These wires of an alloy of NiTi are extremely light weight as compared to any transducer of comparable force output. The drive system described for these demo models is quite simple and not optimized for efficiency.

FIG. 3 shows a block diagram of a simple electronic driver for a pull solenoid system. While the performance is excellent, the cost of the track and of the electronic driver is quite high. 3, however extra switches are required to properly drive the six transducers for both driver and passenger side mirrors. A three pole double throw switch Sc selects driver or passenger side; it is a rocker switch. Direction and drive commands CW and CCW are controlled individually to each Syncro driver. FIG. 5 shows a block diagram of a simple driver for voice coil type transducers. INV1 driving through MF DR drives the return stroke coil of the push pull drive solenoid (PP DS). An ordinary DPDT switch, S1, is used to select up or down with MOSFET drivers (MF DR) driving the contact solenoid (CS) and the drive solenoid (DS). If pull solenoids with return springs are used as transducers 76 and 77, the drive circuit of FIG.

Since windshield wipers are a reversible variable-speed multi-mode accessory, a micro computer control and drive electronics package as shown in FIG. The use of non-perforated dual push-pull drive tapes is an innovation of this invention. Dolor muscular frio o calor . A quick overview of the scope of this invention can be gleaned from the species chart of FIG. If one side stalls due to some malfunction or environmental problem, the other Syncro can function normally in “fail/safe” mode. In FIG. 7B, the same functions are served, however, the two transducers are stacked one under the other and both underneath the gear 58 and rack frame 55. This creates a package with a smaller foot print but greater height. FIG. 19 shows an end view of two mechanisms for a window regulator using two orthogonal linear transducers.

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A different apparatus in FIG. Computer MC accepts three mode inputs, wash, intermittent (INT), and continuous (CONT). REFERENCE Y. Bar-Cohen, T. Xue, M. Shahinpoor, J. O. Simpson, and J. Smith Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Caltech., Pasadena, Calif., “Low-mass muscle actuators using electroactive polymers (EAP)”, Proceedings of SPIE’s 5th Annual International Symposium on Smart Structures and Materials, Mar.