This is further attested by the fact that there are no commercial installations using this type of differential motion. One of the major difficulties in the past has been to design a unit that is sufficiently robust to withstand the enormous power that is possessed by the 25 ocean’s waves. Although there has been a desire to harness the energy of waves for hundreds of 20 years, past attempts have met with limited success. Once the optimal operational frequency has been selected, also from well know formulae, the optimal system mass allowing for the most energy to be extracted can be calculated. 5 Figure 6 illustrates the operation of the braking system 70. When a wave of the desired frequency passes through the apparatus 10, the float member 18 will move upwards due to its positive buoyancy and the hydrodynamic forces acting on the hydroplane surfaces 30 (Figure 6a). In this wave energy extracting mode, the linear electric generator 20 is producing electrical power 10 and this will result in the application of a braking action via the braking system 70 to the cable 66 of the mooring means 60. Hence counterbalancing means 64 will not move and the PBSM 14 remains stationary.
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30 – 17 Figures 8 to 11 illustrate a second embodiment of a wave energy converting apparatus 44 and its associated tension mooring system 50 in accordance with the invention. 10 Preferably the float member 18 is provided with a hydrofoil/hydroplane surface 30 adapted to convert a horizontal component of the wave motion into a vertical movement of the float member 18, thus enhancing the energy extracting capacity of the float member 18. The float member 18 has an 5 elongate horizontal cross-section, with a front end 32 and a rear end 34, the front end 32 being adapted to face into the general direction of an approaching wave.
Dolor Espalda Cáncer Pulmón
30 The tension mooring system 50 of this embodiment comprises an elongate flexible member in the form of a cable 51 extending from a ballast means 52 to a counterbalancing means 53 adapted to be suspended from the submerged member 46 via a pulley mechanism 54. The ballast means 52 – 18 may take the form of a large block of concrete, or alternatively a suitable sea bed mooring may be employed to anchor one end of the cable 51 to the ocean floor. Any suitable dampening means may be employed in the mooring caddy 80 for applying a dampening action to the motion of the submerged member 46. The electric generators 86 are particularly advantageous as they can be used 25 directly as a source of electrical power. Preferably the submerged member is secured to the mooring caddy by a locking mechanism.
Preferably the counterbalancing means comprises an adjustable buoyancy vessel having a mass provided in connection therewith, wherein the buoyancy 30 of the counterbalancing means can be adjusted to vary the counterbalancing -3 force applied to the submerged member via the elongate flexible member. In this embodiment the float member 48 is of spherical configuration and is slidably mounted on the vertical column of the support structure 45. Infeccion de orina y dolor lumbar . The apparatus 44 also comprises a linear electric generator 49 having a stator provided in connection with the vertical column of the support structure 20 45 and a translator integrated into the body of the float member 48. Operation of the wave converting apparatus 44 of this embodiment, for converting ocean wave energy into electrical power, is similar to that of the first embodiment 10 and will not be described in detail again here.
25 Preferably the counterbalancing means comprises a vessel having a mass provided in connection therewith to provide a counterbalancing force applied to the submerged member via the elongate flexible member. Air inside the hollow vessel 55 of the counterbalancing means 53 need not be expelled to ambient ocean but could be pumped back up to a pressure vessel (not shown) housed within the mooring caddy 80 or submerged member 46. 30 A typical operating sequence for the tension mooring system 50 will now be described with reference to Figures 8 to 11: – 20 Given a particular operational environment the control system 92 will measure and calculate, via appropriate means such as an accelerometer, the wave frequencies which are presented to the system.
In this embodiment the mooring means is implemented in the form of a mooring caddy 72, in which the PBSM 14 of the support structure 12 is 20 adapted to dock in use. When the buoyant 30 member 14 is above the mean water level the energy production will stop and -16 the entire support structure 12 will behave as a boat thus enabling easy transport of the apparatus 10. When commissioning the apparatus 10, any excess buoyancy of the buoyant member 14 is released by the reverse process thus re-submerging the 5 support structure 12 and re-instating the energy production. A first embodiment of the wave energy converting apparatus 10 of the present 15 invention, as illustrated in Figures 1 to 7 of the accompanying drawings, comprises an elongate support structure 12 designed to extend above a mean water level in the ocean. In the illustrated embodiment the frame of the support structure 12 is of substantially rectangular configuration.
On the other hand, upward movement of the PBSM 14 (and hence of the entire support structure 12) is hindered by using hydrodynamic forces derived from the viscous force of the planar upper surface 40 moving in an upward direction and the 30 tethering force of the tension mooring system.
The apparatus 44 further comprises a float member 48 of positive buoyancy 15 slidably mounted on the support structure 45 so as to be movable in a vertical direction. As water particles in the crest of a wave encounter the float member 18 they are forced downwards by the hydroplane surfaces 30. This produces an upward force on the float member 18. On the other hand as the water particles encounter the PBSM 14 they are – 11 forced upwards by the inclined upper surface 40. This produces a downward force on the PBSM 14. Hence, when a wave encounters the apparatus 10 there will be an upward force acting upon the float member 18, and a downward force acting upon the PBSM 14, due to the wave’s horizontal 5 motion.
In this embodiment the translator 24 is integrated into the body of the float member 18, as will be described in more detail below. Dolor de pie izquierdo causas . A possible embodiment of the -8 tension mooring system in accordance with the invention may also itself be used to extract energy from the heave of a wave, as will be described in more detail below.
In the preferred embodiments of the WEC of the present invention heave response is not solely used to convert the energy within a wave. In this manner the resonant frequency of the wave energy converting apparatus 44 and its associated tension mooring system 50 can be adjusted to “tune” it to 20 the prevailing ocean conditions. If a small power demand is being met, or the wave frequency is outside the operational parameters of the linear electric generator 20, then the braking system 70 will – 12 be off. The control system 92 will then calculate the current system mass and determine the volume of water to be taken in, or removed from, the system to 10 achieve this optimal mass. 10 References to prior art in this specification are provided for illustrative purposes only and are not to be taken as an admission that such prior art is part of the common general knowledge in Australia or elsewhere.
Dolores Musculares En Los Brazos
Likewise the word “preferably” or variations such as “preferred”, will be understood to imply that a stated integer or group of integers is desirable but not essential to the 25 working of the invention. The commissioning of the system will be such that the mooring means 60 will be set, which includes the ballast 62 and the counterbalancing means 64. The counterbalancing means 64 will be left in its buoyant state until such time as the apparatus 10 is ready to be 20 commissioned.
The WEC converts these heaving, and surging motions of the water particles into vertical forces which in turn move the translator of a linear electric generator in differential motion with its stator. In the illustrated embodiment the 10 buoyant means is in the form of a buoyancy tank 47 (not visible) provided within the submerged member 46. As with the previous embodiment, the buoyancy tank 47 is normally filled with sufficient air to give the submerged member 46 an overall positive buoyancy. When the air chamber is filled with water it will add additional mass to the system thus increasing the system’s performance for lower frequencies. A tension mooring system in accordance with the invention is employed in association with the WEC to achieve this tuneability. The heave motion describes the z-axis (or up and down) motion of the wave and as such it has a very high correlation with the vertical energy within a 30 wave.