Fig. 2B illustrates a deployment 200B of CycWEC 100 on a platform 215 that is fully submerged beneath ocean surface 220 at a depth that submerges blades of CycWEC 100 below ocean surface 220. Platform 215 can be held at a desired depth using a variety of techniques. 2A, CycWEC 100 is mounted on a platform 210 that floats so that at least a portion of platform 210 remains above the surface 220 of the ocean. The combined wetted surface area of the hydrofoils at any span-wise location is exactly that of a single full-size WEC, which indicates that the losses due to skin friction will be the same as those for a single WEC that is the same size as WEC 513. This may constitute a major improvement in terms of overall conversion efficiency. For easy access, cluster 800 may be floating on the surface of the ocean as the result of pumping air into cavities with modules 700 and 810. Deployment of cluster could further involve adjusting the buoyancy of cluster 800 or connecting one or more of modules 700 or 810 to a mooring system (not shown).
The exact choice of implementation of smaller hydrofoils may be driven by both operational and cost of construction considerations. Both modules 700 would generally need to be disconnected from module 810 for removal of module 810, but if one of modules 700 need to be removed, only the module 700 to be removed needs to be disconnected from module 810. In a larger cluster such as cluster 600 of Fig.
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Fig. 5A shows perspective view of a cluster including five wave energy converters arranged for cancelation of reactive forces and torques. Fig. 6A shows a cluster including eleven wave energy converters arranged for cancelation of reactive forces and torques. Fig. 7 also illustrates an example implementation of an active mounting that enables movement of WECs 711 and 712 along beam 721 and 722. In particular, each generator of WEC 711 or 712 is mounted on dollies with wheels which engage a track installed on top beam 721 or 722. This allows for positioning of WEC 711 and 712 along the length of beams 721 and 722 to accommodate different wavelengths as described above.
A control system for cluster 500, e.g., a system such as control unit 320, which includes a pitch unit 322 and a navigation unit 324, can measure incoming waves and if the orientation of cluster 500 does not position the blades of WECs 511 to 515 with a desired orientation, e.g., parallel to the current wave crests, control unit 320 and pitch unit 322 can make the pitch cycles of left WECs 511 and/or 512 different from the pitch cycles of right WECs 514 and/or 515. For example, WEC 511 or 512 may temporarily operate with a fixed pitch angle that is different from a fixed pitch angle used on the blades of WEC 514 or 515. The wave energy conversion process could then cause reactive forces or torques that rotate cluster 500 so that the blades of WECs 511 to 515 are better aligned to the current wave conditions.
A typical motorized drive system may consist of a gear motor with a pinion gear attached to its shaft, which engages in in a linear gear rack as a rack-and-pinion drive system to adjust the position of units 311 and 313. Accordingly, when incident waves have a long wavelength, CycWECs 311 and 313 can be moved out as shown in Fig. In general, incident waves in an ocean are subject to fluctuations and may trend to longer or shorter wavelengths over time.
Each CycWEC has one or more blades with adjustable pitch that may be controlled by a computer or other mechanism. Grado de incapacidad por dolor de espalda . An efficient implementation of each module 521, 522, and 523 as the depicted in Fig. For example, for complete cancelation, the reactive force due to the hydrofoil lift in each of CycWEC 311 and 313 can be controlled to be one half the hydrofoil lift in the center CycWEC 312. Further, in one operating mode, CycWECs 311, 312, and 313 have fixed pitch angles and rotate with the same frequency, which is the frequency of the incoming waves, and CycWEC 312 is operated 180° out of phase with CycWECs 311 and 313. Such operation cancels the net reactive force and the net reactive torque on platform 315 for all rotation angles of CycWECs 311, 312, and 313. The desired phase difference between the reactive force on CycWEC 312 and CycWECs 311 and 313 can be achieved if CycWEC 312 is separated from CycWEC 311 and 313 by one half of the wavelength of the incident waves, so water flows and rotation angle at CycWEC 312 are 180° out of phase with water flows and rotation angles at CycWECs 311 and 313. The spacing of CycWECs 311, 312, and 313 may need to be adjusted to maintain a desired phase relationship between reactive forces on CycWECs 311, 312, and 313 if the wavelength λ of the incident waves changes.
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Sensors 335 may also be independent from platform 315 and located on a separate float or on the ocean floor, to avoid interference from CycWECs 311, 312, and 313 on to these measurements, and provide early advance information about the incoming waves to control system 320. A platform sensor 325 may measure more global operating parameters associated with platform 315 such as the depth, position, orientation, movement, or acceleration of platform 315 or environmental conditions such as wind speed and wave conditions at platform 315. Sensors 331, 332, and 333 may be associated with particular CycWECs 311, 312, and 313 and measure local conditions such as water speeds and rotation angles of respective CycWECs 311, 312, and 313. Pitch unit 322 may use measurements from sensors 325, 331, 332, 333, and 335 when selecting pitch cycles for blades of CycWECs 311, 312, and 313. In general, the pitching cycles can be selected not only for wave energy conversion but also to control reactive forces in cluster 310 and achieved desired operation of system 300. For example, a navigation unit 324 can be included in control system 320 to determine the desired position, orientation, and depth of platform 315 based on factors such as wave conditions or user instructions, and pitch unit 322 may select pitching cycles for individual CycWECs 311, 312, and 313 or individual blades so that net reactive forces move platform 315 toward or maintain platform 315 at the desired position, orientation, and depth.
- Single flexible portion to accommodate motion (large diaphragm)
- Déjala actuar 5 minutos y descansa
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- Debilidad de los músculos de los ojos
- The face of the membrane along which the measurement is made
- Con la pareja
- Las energías hereditarias y adquiridas y su práctica sanadora
In a typical setting, this amount of wave power may not be sufficient to cover the frictional losses at the blades, and thus the down wave WEC 313 may need to be motored in order to maintain rotation for reactive force cancelation. Control system 320 may include a spacing unit 326 for control of active mountings 351 and 353 based on measurements of current wave conditions, e.g., based on the wavelength of the current wave pattern. Ejercicios dolor de espalda y cuello . Connection points 732 may be as simple as a flange with bolts but may also be used to house connectors for electrical power and data connections. Cluster 500 when compared to an in-line cluster having the same hydrofoil area may receive more incoming wave power due to the fact that cluster 500 can provide twice the overall span-wise extent. In which case, only a braking system (not shown) is needed to stop the movement of CycWECs 311, 312, or 313 when the desired new position has been reached, which will also fix CycWECs 311, 312, or 313 in the new position.
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For example, control system 320 can employ the same or different constant pitch angles for CycWECs 311, 312, and 313 and introduce and control perturbations of an otherwise fixed pitch angle for the blades in CycWECs 311, 312, or 313. However, control of the relative sizes of CycWECs 311, 312, and 313 provides passive control of reactive forces. Module 700 can further serve as a flotation device for WEC 711 and 712. With the upper and lower members of beams 721 and 722 being implemented as hollow structures, e.g., cylindrical tubes or pipes, the air inside beams 721 and 722 can be used to adjust the overall buoyancy of module 700 using these hollow structures as ballast tanks. A co-filed PCT Application, entitled “Ocean Mounting of Wave Energy Converters,” further describes some mounting or mooring structures for deploying wave energy converters. Moving modules 700 in the span direction away from module 810 allows module 800 to be removed, e.g., towed out and either be serviced on site, or moved back to shore for more extensive operations requiring for example a dry dock.
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Alternatively, the reactive forces can be controlled to move the cluster in a desired manner, e.g., to control the depth of CycWECs in the cluster, rotate the cluster to adjust to the direction of a wave front, or transport the cluster. WECs 601 to 611 are thus arranged in three rows with an up- wave row including WECs 601, 604, 607, and 610, a center row including central WECs 603, 606, and 609, and down-wave row including WECs 602, 605, 608, and 611. In normal operation, the rows may be separated by one half of the wavelength of the incident waves.
6A, the module to be removed would generally need to be disconnected from any modules to the immediate left or right, but full disassembly of all of the modules may not be require. For example, to remove or replace a module 700 or 810, the module 700 or 810 to be removed may need to be disconnected from the mooring system, but other modules 700 or 810 do not.
In particular, the pitch of such blades can be controlled and operated not only to extract energy from ocean waves but also to control reactive forces that the ocean waves apply to the CycWEC. Waves passing through a CycWEC cause water flows that interact with the hydrofoils, creating lift that rotates the foils and the central shaft.