Resonance conditions, therefore, can still exist even though the platform has a natural period in excess of the predominant wave periods that can be expected. As stated above, however, the ocean presents a continuous spectrum of all wave periods and thus there exists at all times some waves having a period at or close to the natural oscillation period of the body, although the energy of such waves may nat be as great as the energy of the waves at the lower and predominant wave period. The invention thus provides a means for connecting the flow line to the hull that permits movement of the hull relative to the flow line without the use of moving parts, such as would be found in a universal or swivel type of connections that are easily susceptible to damage or plugging. A further object of one embodiment of this invention is to provide a new and improved flow line system for connecting a floating marine platform to a well head, which system is not subject to rupture despite the motions of the platform under the most severe sea conditions.
In accordance with another embodiment of this invention, a stabilized, flow system is provided for connecting a floating marine platform to an underwater well head, which system comprises a lower, flexible fluid flow line substantially horizontally disposed and bending upward from the well head, and an upper, flexible fluid flow line substantially vertically disposed and extending downwardly from the platform. In accordance with this invention, a moored and floating marine platform is provided that is inherently stabilized under all sea conditons so as to remain continuously habitable and operational.
1, this means comprises a plurality of upper and lower vertical damping plates 40 and 42, respectively, that extend in a radial direction from the submerged upper and lower side walls of hull 22. Preferably, the upper edges of upper plates 40 are adjacent the still water line of the hull so that these plates are normally submerged at all times.
In accordance with the invention, means are provided for connecting the upper end of the lower flow line to the lower end of the upper flow line in angular relationship, and mooring means are provided for maintaining the connection at a point laterally spaced from the platform to maintain the flow lines in the form of stiffened catenary curves. The system includes an upper, substantially vertically disposed flow line and a lower, substantially horizontally disposed flow line that are connected in fixed angular relationship, said connection being moored at a point laterally spaced from the platform to maintain the flow lines in the form of stiffened catenary curves. Mooring means are further provided to hold the connecting means at a location laterally spaced from the platform to maintain the flow lines in the form of stiffened catenary curves.
Dolores Musculares Por Ansiedad
In accordance with a further embodiment of this invention, there is provided a stabilized, flow line system for connecting a floating marine platform to a well head on the bottom of the ocean floor. For the purposes of clarity and simplification, only those parts of a floating marine platform which are essential to an understanding of the stabilizing and flow line system of this invention have been illustrated in the drawings. Reference will now be made in detail to the present preferred embodiments of the invention, examples of which are illustrated in the accompanying drawings. Generally, however, ovean waves are irregular, and while a continuous spectrum of all wave periods is therefor present at any one time, certain wave periods are predominant depending upon the conditions of the sea. Dolor por debajo de la rodilla . Ocean waves are irregular, however, and while natural period waves are present and must be accounted for, the highest wave energy to which the platform may be exposed are at much lower periods.
Tipos De Dolor Dental
O US. Cl. 114–.5 6 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE A stable, floating marine platform is provided having a natural period of oscillation greater than the period of the waves of maximum energy to which the platform may be exposed. Thus, it is desirable to provide a platform in which the natural period of oscillation of the body is considerably in excess of the period of the wave of maximum energy to which a floating marine platform may be exposed in the open sea. In accordance with this invention, therefore, the platform is constructed to that its natural period of oscillation is considerably in excess of the period of waves of maximum energy to which the body may be exposed. The accompanying drawings which are incorporated in and constitute a part of this specification, illustrate an embodiment of the invention and together with the description, serve to explain the principles of the invention.
This invention relates to stable ocean platforms suitable for oil well drilling, petroleum production and storage, communication facilities, satellite observations, and the like. E. JOHNSON, JR., ETAL STABLE OCEAN PLATFORM 5 Sheets-Sheet 4 INVENTORS vmen. E. JOHNSON, JR. JOHN o. JOHN o. SCHERER, JR. Accordingly, a primary object of this invention is to provide a new and improved floating marine platform that remains sufficiently stable to be habitable and operational under all sea conditions. For such platforms to be capable of carrying out the drilling, oil production, and other offshore operations, they must be relatively stable despite the motions of the sea. As the search for oil extends further offshore into deeper and deeper water, it becomes increasingly difficult to provide bottom-supported platforms to conduct the necessary drilling and production operations.
Vertical damping plates 40 and 42 are sized to provide near critical damping of the angular motion of the platform. Similarly, horizontal damping plate 44 is sized to provide near critical damping of the vertical motion of the platform. 3. Dolor radicular lumbar . The platform of claim 1, in which the hull is a cylinder having a substantially constant circular cross section and includes eight upper and eight lower damping plates circumferentially spaced around the cylindrical hull at their respective areas. With predominant waves of relatively short wave lengths, the pitch center is low on the body so that the angular motion of the upper part of the body is greater than its lower portion.
As the oscillatory waves strike a floating body, various motions are imparted to the body and the motions increase with increasing wave energy. In accordance with the objects, this invention provides a stabilized floating marine platform comprising an elongated, substantially symmetrical hull of draft such that its lower portion is below the zone of significant vertical wave motion, and of a size such that its natural period of oscillation in pitch and heave is greater than the period of the waves of maximum energy to which the platform may be exposed. 1, the floating marine platform of this invention, generally indicated as 20, is an elongated, right circular cylinder having a hull 22 of substantially constant cross-sectional area and a production and crew facility area 24. Hull 22 is internally closed at each end and is divided into a plurality of compartmented petroleum storage tanks. In the preferred embodiment of this invention and to relieve tension on coil 70 from the weight of the flow line system, a tension link 76 is provided having its lower end secured to connection 74 and its upper end pivotally connected at 80 to hull 22. The link may be of any suitably form, such as a chain cable or bar.
- Resonancia magnética de la columna
- Carga anaeróbica: Ejercicio o actividad que se realiza en ausencia de oxígeno
- Cicatrices de infecciones del tracto urinario
- Allowing fluid to flow past the at least one member to generate positive or negative lift
- Todo a tu ritmo
- Intervenciones quirúrgicas o cirugías
- Alteraciones hormonales
4. The platform of claim 1, in which the lower end of the lower plates abut the upper surface of the horizontal damping plate. Preferably, the upper flow line is connected to the platform through a coil of flow line that has a degree of flexure sufficient to accommodate angular motion of the platform realtive to the flow line. It is to be understood that both the foregoing general description and the following detailed description are exemplary and explanatory but are not restrictive of the invention. The mooring lines, therefore, are not used to prevent lateral oscillation but to prevent drifting of the platform away from the desired location. The cost of such platforms not only are prohibitive, but their safety is questionable. Further, many of the platforms and the mooring systems heretofore provided in attempts to improve the stability and well head connection have either been too complex or too costly to be practical.
Dolor Espalda Media
In this embodiment, mooring lines 58′ extend in an opposite di rection from the well head to maintain tension in the flow lines in a manner similar to the embodiment shown in FIGS. Dolor de gluteos y espalda baja . FIG. 10 is a chart of the test data obtained in this experiment. Under seat state 5, for example, the period of waves of the highest energy is around 10 seconds, while under sea state 8, the period of waves of the highest energy is around seconds. Considering the response of a floating body, it can be seen that if the natural period of oscillation of a floating body is at or near the period of the waves of highest energy striking the platform at any given time, that resonance will occur and motions become so violent that the platform will be totally useless.
Dolor Neuropático Que Es
When the platform pitches in response to wave action, it pitches about a center which varies up and down the height of the body depending on the wave periodof the predominant waves striking the body. The horizontal damping plate dampens heaving or vertical motion of the platform caused by waves oscillating at or near the natural period of oscillation of the platform to prevent the occurrence of resonance conditions. Periods of 2.2 seconds, for example, are the period of waves of maximum energy that may be expected, since these are the predominant waves under hurricane conditions. At all wave periods, therefore, the tests conclusively demonstrate that the heave and pitch response of the model platform was sufficiently small to permit continuous habitation and operation of the platform under all possible sea conditions. 5. The platform of claim 1, in which the horizontal damping plate is circular and is secured to the bottom of the hull.