The waveguide may be arranged to generate and/or control reflections so as 10 to promote a particular frequency of a bulge wave, for example, by constructive interference, and/or increase the passive bandwidth of the deformable body. 10 The power generator described above provides a wide range of control options, including both active and passive control, and control of reflections generated within the generator body, which allow a wide range of control options to be achieved and greatly increase the flexibility of the apparatus. It will be possible to pre-stress the wall of the tube to enhance power absorption and performance of the electroactive polymer material. Figure 9 shows a conduit 50 for mounting on or in the walls of the tube 24 of the generator 10. The conduit 50 is arranged to coil around the inner cavity 28 of the distensible tube 24. In an optional embodiment, the coiled conduit 50 forms the walls of the tube 24 and defines the tube 24. The conduit 50 is coiled such that a wall of a 25 portion of the conduit 50 forming a loop of the coil is affixed to a wall of the conduit 50 belonging to adjacent loops of the coil.
- General Background and State of the Art
- Equipment according to claim 1, wherein, described a plurality of transducers comprise
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The at least one conduit may be coupled to driven apparatus. Where the force transducer comprises at least one fluid conduit, at least one conduit may be adapted to have its pressure controlled, for example, by a pump, a hydraulic generator operated in reverse, a throttle valve, or the like or any combination thereof, to effect a 20 desired mechanical output of at least one secondary conduit and thus of the deformable body.
This arrangement may permit local changes in the area or volume of the fluid cavity to thus achieve effective deformation 15 of the electroactive material and/or at least one conduit. The generator 10 is arranged such that the electric current supplied to the force transducer panels 26 is controllable in order to control at least one dynamic response of the distensible tube 24. In this way, the apparatus 10 operates as a smart 25 structure, that can not only extract energy from fluid motion but also control or adapt the energy extraction, for example, in response to changes in the wave motion or generation requirements placed on the apparatus. The deformable body may be designed such that it passively resonates at a desired frequency for optimal energy extraction. 20 According to a sixth aspect of the present invention there is provided a method of capturing energy from fluid motion, said method comprising the steps of: providing a deformable body, wherein the deformable body comprises at least one conduit adapted to receive an energy medium, the at least one body being arranged such that deformation of at least part of the body drives the energy 25 medium; exposing a deformable body to fluid motion; controlling the energy medium in order to control at least one dynamic response of the deformable body; and 18 permitting the fluid motion to deform at least part of the deformable body to thereby drive the energy medium.
Alternatively, the deformable body may be freely disposed within a fluid 20 body.
5 At least one conduit may be deformable. The force transducer may comprise an electroactive polymer. Alternatively, the wall of the deformable body may comprise a plurality of panels. For example, the fluid motion may produce pressure or pressure variations, such as static and dynamic pressures and 5 pressure variations, which may act against the deformable body to establish forces sufficient to deform said deformable body. This may therefore permit the 12 deformable body to be exposed to preferential pressure regimes and differentials or the like. Alternatively, or additionally, the apparatus may be adapted to be driven by motion of gas, such as winds or the like. Dolor de pierna derecha causas . Alternatively, the deformable body may be freely disposed within a fluid 20 body. The fibres may be embedded in the deformable body. The properties and/or dimensions and/or shape of the waveguide may be arranged to minimise reflections.
Fisioterapia A Domicilio
The waveguide may be linear, multilinear or toroidal. The fibres may form a knitted, woven or non-woven 25 reinforcement. The electrical 15 generator 10 is provided in the form of a wave energy converter adapted to convert wave energy to electrical energy. The energy take-off device may comprise a hydraulic pump, a hydraulic electrical generator, a hydraulic actuator, an accumulator or storage device, such as an energy or liquid 15 storage device, or the like, or combinations thereof.
Dolor Neuropático Periférico
The floatation arrangement may comprise a chamber adapted to contain a gas, such as air or the like. In one embodiment the dynamic response of the deformable body may be altered to permit bulge wave propagation velocity to accurately match incident fluid velocity, such as wave velocity, fluid current velocity or the like. The electrical conductor may communicate the generated electrical current and power to a remote location for subsequent use. Furthermore, the data provided by the sensors can be used to provide a predicted power that could be extracted from the apparatus, which allows 5 for improved control over the extracted power. Furthermore, as the generator 10 is a distributed energy system, the generator 10 is 15 more robust, as failure of individual elements of the generator 10 may be compensated for by utilising resources assigned to other elements of the generator 10. Means may be provided for carrying out such re-assignment remotely.
Tipos De Dolor Torácico
Thus, the energy extraction apparatus may be permitted to be shut down or limited in output when ambient conditions near or exceed design limits. The motion of the deformable body may be controlled to establish in phase or out of phase harmonic motion with ambient fluid motion. Que colchon es mejor para el dolor de espalda . The fluid motion may be an oscillating motion and/or result in an oscillating motion in the deformable body. 4 The dynamic response may be defined by the desired effective stiffness, effective damping or effective inertia of the deformable body. The deformable body may be moored within a fluid body. In embodiments of the present invention the deformable body may be adapted to be towed or otherwise displaced within a fluid body.
19 BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS These and other aspects of the present invention will now be described, by way of example only, with reference to the accompanying drawings, in which: 5 Figure 1 is a diagrammatic representation of a fluid motion electrical generator in accordance with a first embodiment of the present invention, shown in use within a body of water; Figure 2a is a lateral cross-sectional view through the electrical generator of Figure 1, shown in a relaxed configuration; 10 Figure 2b is a further lateral cross-sectional view through the electrical generator of Figurel, shown in a distended configuration; Figure 3a is a schematic of a force transducer for use with the generator of Figure 1; Figure 3b is a schematic of an alternative force transducer for use with the 15 generator of Figure 1; Figures 4 and 5 are diagrammatic representations of controlling heaving motion of the electrical generator of Figure 1 with respect to passing surface waves; Figure 6 is an enlarged view of a front end region of the electrical generator of Figure 1; 20 Figure 7 is a diagrammatic representation of a support arrangement of the electrical generator of Figure 1; Figure 8 is diagrammatic representation of an alternative support arrangement of the electrical generator of Figure 1; Figure 9 is a diagrammatic representation of a section of conduit for use in a 25 fluid motion engine according to a second aspect of the present invention; Figures 10a and 10b are diagrammatic representations of a panel of the conduit of Figure 9 in a relaxed and stretched configuration respectively; and 20 Figures 11 a and 11 b are cross sections of the conduit panels of Figures 1 Oa and 1 Ob in a relaxed and stretched configuration respectively.
At least one conduit may be deformable. One or more of the valves may be provided in the conduit. The control system 32 may also be utilised to control bulge wave amplitude. This optimises the efficiency of the system. This may therefore permit resonance of the entire system to be achieved to therefore maximise 25 the energy transfer into the deformable body. The device of the present invention may be an order of magnitude less expensive than existing wave energy devices which rely on steel, concrete or similar 10 construction materials due to the low density of the material.
A bulge wave termination region may be provided at the trailing end 22 of the 15 tube 24 in order to damp the bulge wave and control reflections, which may interfere with subsequent bulge waves in the tube 24. Power-conversion may be achieved without need for moving mechanical parts. By having spatially distributed sensors, the control system 32 is able to determine the 28 properties of the bulge wave before it reaches parts of the distensible tube 24. The control system 32 can therefore adapt the dynamic response of that part of the tube 24 accordingly. Dolor en la muñeca dela mano . Also, the control system 32 may be adapted to initiate bulge waves at the required 15 location and with required amplitude and velocity.
The deformable body may be positively displaced by active control of the force transducer.
The second fluid may differ from, or be the same as, the first fluid. The multi-spatial sensing may enable more robust control by reducing phase delay of 15 feedback circuit, for example, by reducing averaging windows, and or enabling predictive control. One or more conduits may comprise one or more linked fluid chambers. In one embodiment the deformable body may comprise a tubular structure. The deformable body may be positively displaced by active control of the force transducer. The wall of the flotation chamber 36 may be arranged to have anisotropic properties, such that when the flotation chamber 36 is stretched, the volume of the 20 flotation chamber 36 at the stretched portion is reduced.
While particular embodiments of this invention have been described, it will be 15 evident to those skilled in the art that the present invention may be embodied in other specific forms without departing from the essential characteristics thereof. 10 Any reference herein to known prior art does not, unless the contrary indication appears, constitute an admission that such prior art is commonly known by those skilled in the art to which the invention relates, at the priority date of this application. It should be understood that the embodiment described herein is merely 15 exemplary and that various modifications may be made thereto without departing from the scope of the present invention.