DESCRIPTION OF RELATED ART There is an urgent need to develop systems for generating renewable energy to replace our current dependency on fossil fuels. RELATED APPLICATION This Application is the U.S. This has the advantage of making the spar buoy 212 much more stable in water, in that it is less likely to heave or deviate from the vertical upstanding direction. In this way the spar buoy 12 is anchored to the seabed. Furthermore, the primary chamber 14 will allow the pulses of pressurised air arriving from the respective air compressors 40 to dissipate before they reach the secondary chamber 16. This provides a smooth consistent supply of pressurised air to drive the turbines 28, so that the electric energy generated does not fluctuate. The present invention provides a good electric energy return for the footprint area occupied by the apparatus. The control system enables protection of the apparatus in extremely rough conditions and prevents energy wastage when a constant source of electric energy cannot be created under calm conditions.
Below a pre-determined wave amplitude and/or frequency in very calm conditions, when it is deemed that the energy input is insufficient to run a single generator 30, 300 the control system will shut all generators 30, 300 until the minimum wave amplitude is reached which enables consistent generator 30, 300 operation. The directional means can further comprise a motor coupled to the body and the anchor-arm, which motor is operable to selectively move the anchor-arm and orient the body relative to the wavefront. The pivotal attachments 82 u, 82 l enable the spar buoy 12 to pivot around the anchor arm 80 and enable the apparatus 100 to be correctly oriented relative the wavefront.
Tipos De Dolor Torácico
In use, the body can float in the water and can be shaped such that it is substantially stable relative to movement of the waves and the at least one member can be movable relative to the body. However, the air cylinders 40 have been replaced with cylinders 400 for receiving and compressing a hydraulic fluid as the floats 44, 45 move between wave crests 54 and troughs 56. A hydraulic fluid reservoir 171 is provided within the spar buoy 12 for supplying hydraulic fluid to the cylinders 400 via hydraulic fluid supply lines 134. The lines 134 have check valves 135 fitted thereto to permit flow of the hydraulic fluid in one direction only.
A control system 150 determines the wave amplitude by measuring the height of wave troughs 56 and wave crests 54 with sensors 175. If the control system 150 detects a small wave amplitude and low wave frequency, only one generator 30, 130 is used. Also attached to each lever arm 42, 43 and a point on the spar buoy 12 is an air compressor 40. The air compressor 40 comprises a rod 46, a piston (not shown) and an air chamber 48. Dolor de rodilla y pie . The piston is located at one end of the rod 46 and is movable axially within the air chamber 48. Leakage of air from the air chamber 48 is prevented by O-ring seals to provide a seal between the outer diameter of the piston and the interior of the air chamber 48. A distal end 47 of each rod 46 is fixed to the corresponding lever arm 42, 43 and one end 49 of each air chamber 48 is attached to the spar buoy 12. Thus lever arms 42, 43, air compressors 40 and a portion of the spar buoy 12 occupy a triangular configuration.
- Arterias estrechas o bloqueadas
- Hasta 30
- Irritabilidad, agresividad y agitación
- Tos o toser con sangre
- Intoxicación por nitritos
- Aerodynamic refinements to the structure and flexible sheet to improve performance
5 and 6 two spar buoys are shown generally at 212 and 312 respectively, without the lever arms 42, 43 attached. Similarly, the spar buoy 312 has an inverse dome-shaped upper end 320 and a long shaft 324 extending therefrom. The secondary chamber 16 is located substantially centrally towards the upper end 22 within the spar buoy 12. The pressure control valve 18 can be selectively opened to enable fluid communication in the direction from the primary chamber 14 to the secondary chamber 16. A check valve may be incorporated to prevent flow in the reverse direction. The interior of the spar buoy 12 contains a primary chamber 14, valve means in the form of a pressure control valve 18 and a secondary chamber 16. Air supply lines 34 enable fluid communication between the inner end 49 of air chambers 48 and the primary chamber 14. The air supply lines 34 are provided with one way check valves (not shown) to permit flow of air from the air chambers 48 to the primary chamber 14 but prevent flow in the reverse direction and thus prevent backflow of pressurised air.
Depending on the pressure within each chamber 14, 16, the pressure control valve 18 selectively allows air to flow from the primary chamber 14 to the secondary chamber 16. The pressure sensing means and pressure control valve 18 allow the interior of the secondary chamber 16 to be accurately pressure controlled. This allows for successful energy generation from a variety of input wave conditions.
Tipos De Dolor De Espalda
The process of generating energy from waves of the present invention allows a pulsed energy input to be converted to a smooth constant supply to the generators 30, 130 whilst maintaining a high level of efficiency. The pressure in the primary chamber 14 will fluctuate according to the input of pressurised fluid from the air compressors 40 delivered by air supply lines 34. The pressure of the primary chamber 14 is maintained at a higher level than that of the secondary chamber 16. The primary chamber 14 is provided with a bilge (not shown) such that moisture contained in the air will gather in the primary chamber 14 and collect in the bilge as water and this feature has the advantage that only relatively dry air will proceed to the secondary chamber 16. The moisture/water is then removed by a bilge pump (not shown).
The control system can also be programmed to detect a minimum predetermined wave height, which may be experienced in calm conditions when the energy input is insufficient to run a single generator. This is particularly important when the apparatus is used in harsh conditions in remote, locations which may be difficult to access by repair personnel. Sintomas coronavirus dolor muscular . When either of the floats 44 attached to upper lever arms 42 are on the crest 54 of a wave the rod 46 will be fully extended and the air chamber 48 filled with air.
The spar buoy 12 has a central body 24 having an upper end 22 and a lower end 23. The spar buoy 12 has a height greater than its lateral extent. The body can have a height greater than its lateral extent. One end of the fluid compressor can be coupled to the arm and another end of the fluid compressor can be coupled to the body at a point vertically spaced from the pivotal coupling of the body and the arm. The method can include pivotally coupling one end of an arm to the body and attaching the or each member to another end of the arm. The body can be provided with an outer frame and the one or more members can be arranged to be attached to the frame in the storm survival mode.
Preferably, the container is filled with gas to react against the expandable bladder. Preferably, the chamber comprises a container having an expandable bladder contained therein. The accumulators 114 are steel containers having an expandable rubber bladder within (not shown) and containing a pressurised gas, typically nitrogen. Alternatively, a frame (not shown) can be attached to the outer part of the central body 24, allowing the fluid compressors 40, 400 to be fixed thereto. As the wave amplitude and/or frequency increases, second and third generators 30, 130 may be utilised depending on the pressure within the secondary chamber 16 or the bladder, which in turn is determined by the rate at which pressurised fluid is supplied from the compressors 40, 400. Additionally, the control system determines the number of operational hours for each generator 30, 300 and turbine 28/fluid motor 128 unit and cycles their use appropriately such that each generator 30, 300 sees a substantially even number of running hours.
Fisioterapia A Domicilio
Preferably, the pressure of the first chamber is maintained at a higher level than that of the second chamber. Alternatively, the chamber can be a first chamber and the apparatus can also comprise a second chamber in fluid communication with the first chamber. In the case where the member is a float, or a body arranged to at least partially float, the control system can effect flooding of the float/body with water to cause it to sink to a lower limit. The or each member can be coupled to an end of an arm and another end of the arm can be pivotally coupled to the body. The ballast 20 also ensures that the lower end 23 of the spar buoy is submerged beneath the surface 54 of the sea 52, while the upper end 22 protrudes therefrom. Dolor muscular vih . The upper bulbous end 220 can contain the components internally such as the conversion means to protect them from the waves.
The control system can close the conversion means to seal the chamber(s) to contain pressurised fluid therein, thereby preventing energy wastage. Preferably, the bladder is in fluid communication with the energy transfer mechanism and is arranged to contain the pressurised fluid therefrom. Another advantage associated with the apparatus 10, 100 is that all the moving parts are internal which protects them from damage and minimises intrusion of the apparatus 10, 100 on the marine environment. The apparatus of the present invention is suitable for use in any aquatic environment and is particularly suited for use in seas and oceans. For example, a rack and pinion mechanism can be employed in place of the rod 46 and piston assembly. Although the floats 44, 45 are described as cylindrical in the above embodiment, the skilled person would recognise that the floats can be of any shape.