4M. Varying the amount of electrical energy provided to active area 188, and corresponding inner layer active areas, controls the deflection of the top portion 189 along this arc. FIG. 4J illustrates a monolithic transducer 150 comprising a plurality of active areas on a single polymer 151 in accordance with one embodiment of the present invention. FIG. 1B illustrates a top perspective view of the transducer portion 10 including deflection. In one definition, thermodynamic work may be said to be done by a system on its surroundings if some other process can be found in which the system passes through the same series of states as in the original process, but in which the sole effect in the surroundings is the rise of a weight.
- Diferencias clave entre un ataque de ansiedad y un ataque cardíaco
- Llevar puestas las prendas más pesadas
- Objeto decorativo
- Las infecciones causadas por virus y bacterias
- Alivia el dolor y la inflamación
The pump can be made using one or more rolls of electroactive polymer (EPAM) film arranged in a roll transducer 352. The EPAM film may or may not be pre-strained. In one embodiment, the outermost layer of a rolled electroactive polymer does not comprise an electrode disposed thereon. Further, the device may comprise a lower chamber designed to mount to the clamp plate and to secure the film between the clamp plate and the lower chamber. The polymer may comprise a multilayer structure where the multilayer structure comprises two or more layers of electroactive polymers. Electronic circuits in electrical communication with electrodes detect the electrical property change. In particular, the EPAM devices may be incorporated into medical devices that perform cardiac assistance, such as pumping blood in replace of or in conjunction with a heart. The device is one of a pump or a compressor for a refrigeration system.
Dolor Espalda Media
For instance, when it is stretched, mechanical forces generated in the EPAM polymer in the transducer 302 may provide a returning force when the voltage is removed or reduced on the EPAM polymer. FIG. 2I illustrates an Electroactive Polymer (EPAM) spherical pumping device 330 for circulating a fluid over a heat source 331 to remove heat energy from the heat source 331. The spherical pumping device includes a spherically shaped EPAM transducer 333 that forms the bounding surface of a pumping chamber 334. The present invention is not limited to spherically shaped EPAM transducers 333 and transducers that deform into a variety general 3-D shapes may also be used. FIG. 7B is a block diagram of automobile and automobile subsystems 515 that employ EPAM devices that perform thermodynamic work on a fluid. Dolor en dedo medio de la mano izquierda . FIG. 2G illustrates an Electroactive Polymer (EPAM) device for performing thermodynamic work on a fluid with a piston driven by an EPAM transducer and an EPAM transducer for controlling a volume of the piston cylinder.
Dolor Neuropático Que Es
In cases where the transducer is used for damping, a resistance that produces an RC time constant for the resistor and the transducer in the range of about 0.1 to about 4 times the period of a frequency of interest may be suitable. Thus, any of the rolled polymers, active areas, polymer configurations, transducers, and devices described herein may be a transducer for converting mechanical energy to electrical energy (generation, variable stiffness or damping, or sensing) and for converting electrical energy to mechanical energy (actuation, variable stiffness or damping, or sensing). Transducer 150 includes a polymer 151 fixed at one end by a rigid support 152. Attached to polymer 151 is a flexible thin material 153 such as polyimide or mylar using an adhesive layer, for example. The maximum and minimum volumes as well as the volumes between the maximum and minimum are fixed at each location as the piston travels on its path in the cylinder.
Dolor Muscular Antebrazo
The aerodynamic performance of the blade 326 may be a function of its pitch. The pumps may be used in refrigeration applications or as part of a thermal control system. The improved mechanical response enables greater mechanical work for an electroactive polymer, e.g., larger deflections and actuation pressures. For example, the logic device may be a single chip computer or microprocessor that processes information produced by sensing electronics. The piston 317 is driven by two EPAM transducers 302. The EPAM transducers 302 are connected to a housing 321 and a support structure 303. The transducers 302 may increase and decrease in length when a voltage is applied to the transducers as indicated by the direction arrows 322. Conditioning electronics and a power supply not shown (see FIGS. Dolor lumbar por esfuerzo . For example, the transducers may be designed to conduct heat to the support structure 303. The support structure 303 may include a heat sink and a connection to a thermal conduit for removing heat from the heat sink in the support structure.
Ser. No. 09/619,848, which is incorporated by reference for all purposes.
For example, inner and outer layers and surface coating may be selected to provide fluid compatibility as previously described. Suitable electronics for each of these functions are described in further detail below. Ser. No. 09/619,848, which is incorporated by reference for all purposes. Ser. No. 10/383,005, filed on Mar. 60/293,005 filed May 22, 2001, which is incorporated by reference herein for all purposes; and which claims priority under 35 U.S.C. No. 09/619,847 entitled “Improved Electroactive Polymers,” filed Jul. One class of these polymers, electroactive elastomers (also called dielectric elastomers, electroelastomers, or EPAM), is gaining wider attention. Although device 20 is illustrated with a single spring 24 disposed internal to the rolled polymer, it is understood that additional structures such as another spring external to the polymer may also be used to provide strain and prestrain forces. Dolor en la parte lumbar de la espalda . For generation and sensing, the generation and utilization of electrical energy may require conditioning electronics of some type.
Dolor Muscular Piernas
Pat. No. 6,628,040, which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety for all purposes which claims priority under 35 U.S.C. Electrodes 174 e-i are all electrical communication with common electrode 177 and wire 179 that provides common electrical communication with active areas 176 e-i. In this case, voltage step-down performed by step-down circuitry in electrical communication with the electrodes of transducer 132 may be used to adjust an electrical output voltage from transducer 132. Alternately, voltage source 134 may include a variable step-up circuit that can produce a variable high voltage output from the battery. Alternately, if a positive pressure fluid (relative to the external surface of the tube) is available, the positive pressure can be used to provide actuation with a circumferential pre-strain or pre-load. The polymer is characterized by a circumferential prestrain from about 300 to about 500 percent and axial prestrain (including force contributions by spring 24) from about 150 to about 250 percent.
4B illustrates an axial view of device 20 from the top end. The end structures 351 may be used to seal off the top of the bellows spring. In one embodiment, a rolled electroactive polymer refers to an electroactive polymer with, or without electrodes, wrapped round and round onto itself (e.g., like a poster) or wrapped around another object (e.g., spring 24). The polymer may be wound repeatedly and at the very least comprises an outer layer portion of the polymer overlapping at least an inner layer portion of the polymer.
In another embodiment, the piston driven pump 320 may be used as a compressor. In this case, transducer 150 varies and controls stiffness in one direction using polymer deflection in another direction. For actuation, portion 151 b comprises the polymer 151 between the electrodes 156 a and 156 b and any other portions of the polymer 151 having sufficient stress induced by the electrostatic force to enable deflection upon application of voltages using the electrodes 156 a and 156 b. For example, control electronics in electrical communication with electrodes of the transducer may supply a substantially constant charge to the electrodes. In a particular embodiment, the spherical transducer may also act as a heat exchanging area. A transducer may also be used as an electroactive polymer sensor to measure a change in a parameter of an object being sensed. This effect could also be achieved by controlling the speed at which the piston operates.
Dolores Musculares En Los Brazos
These torques may be applied about the axis indicated by the arrows of directions 161 a and 161 b. Que es el dolor lumbar . The bottom edge 22 b of polymer 22 is wound about endpiece 28 and attached thereto using an adhesive. In addition, although the present invention has been described in terms of circular rolled geometries, the present invention is not limited to these geometries and may include rolled devices with square, rectangular, or oval cross sections and profiles. Given the ability to pattern and independently control multiple active areas allows rolled transducers of the present invention to be employed in many new applications; as well as employed in existing applications in new ways. 3A and 3B as well other pump embodiments described in the present application, may be used in many applications. The multistage pumps may be made up of elements that are connected end to end or stacked (see FIGS.
Dolor De Garganta
FIGS. 3A and 3B illustrate a first embodiment of an EPAM tube pumping device. The pump 350 can be made in a cascade or series (multistage) to further increase pressure (see FIGS. 3E, the EPAM roll transducer 328 can expand or contract axially by the application of a voltage while its diameter remains essentially unchanged. One measure of the flatness of a pumping device is a ratio of its height divided by the product of its foot print area. An active area may be configured such that sensing is performed simultaneously with actuation of the active area. The two middle transducers are larger than the two outside transducers.
The transducers may operate in phase or out of phase. The laws of thermodynamics deal with interactions between a system and its surroundings. In a specific embodiment, inner hole 27 c comprises an internal thread capable of threaded interface with a threaded member, such as a screw or threaded bolt. Further, motors usually are typically only efficient at a limited number of operating conditions, such as a rotational speed. The larger bending angle may enable a greater fluid flow for microchip cooling.