- Palmas arriba y abajo
- Two counterweight blocks are also symmetrically arranged with bent axle
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11 and 12 also function as the resistive element (FIGS. In general however, and in accordance with the present invention, the impact of molecule 110 with paddle 100 results, on the average, with a reduction in velocity. Accordingly, by choosing a heavy molecule gas, such as xenon, or by using a fluid heavily laden with particulate, such as air laden with carbon molecules, and/or by immersing the paddles in the gas at elevated pressure, such as 100 times atmospheric pressure, the power output of the units can be increased by a factor of over 100, as compared with units operating in air at atmospheric pressure. 11. Nanometer-scale beams 2901-2906 are preferably configured to only electrically couple with contacts 2931-2936 when nanotubes 2971-2976, respectively, create an electrical charge at the free moving ends of nanometer-scale beams 2901-2906 having a specific polarity and minimum magnitude. Thus, persons skilled in the art will appreciate that two components are electrically coupled together, at least for the sake of the present application, when one component electrically affects the other component.
Assembly 1100 includes a series of nanometer members 1102 that are connected between a pair of electrically and thermally conductive rails 1104 and 1106. In this embodiment, nanometer members 1102 are carbon nanotubes and each one of nanotubes 1102 is provided with some slack, which enables the nanotubes to vibrate in reaction to random pressure variations in the surrounding working substance.
Dolor Espalda Lado Derecho
The potential applied across resistor 2148 will result in resistor 2148 heating up. 3 is indicative of the amount of force applied to paddles 302, 322, and 342, persons skilled in the art will appreciate that the automatic switches may be constructed such that piezoelectric generators 304, 324, and 344 couple resistors 308, 328, and 348, respectively, when the total force of all the molecules impacting on paddles 302, 322, and 342 has at least a particular magnitude and a particular direction. The direction that a paddle is moved by a working substance (or by its own thermal vibrations) affects the direction that paddle 1901 is moved. In preferred embodiments, system 2800 is utilized as a heat engine such that thermal energy from heat source 2840 is converted into useful amounts of electrical energy across load resistor 2860. In this manner, system 2300 is not removing the effects of Johnson noise.
Tipos De Dolor Lumbar
Persons skilled in the art will appreciate that other devices may be used, such as thermal to electric heat engines (such as, for example, a thermionic heat engine), rather than thermoelectric generators described herein, without departing from the spirit of the present invention. As shown in system 2800, multiple instances of a switch are placed together in both parallel and series configurations where each switch has its own source of thermal noise.
For example, two or more switches may be constructed together in only a parallel configuration. Thus, it is beneficial to include at least two parallel sources of thermal noise in system 2800. This may be done in many ways. Dolor en la rodilla despues de una caida . Attached to thermally conductive base 1108, in accordance with the principles of the present invention, is a thermal insulation material 1110 that covers at least a majority of the otherwise exposed portions of conductive base 1108. The use of insulation 1110 aides in the prevention of thermal energy losses. Similarly, the heat produced by load resistor 2860 may be used as thermal energy. Once a voltage V is applied from source 710 across the plates of capacitor 708, an electric field E is produced that creates a force that helps keep the length of nanotubes 702 oriented substantially perpendicular with the surface of capacitor plates 704 and 706. Statistical variations in the speed and direction of working fluid molecules which strike nanotubes 702 cause statistical variations in fluid pressure about nanotubes 702 which, in turn, cause nanotubes 702 to move erratically as illustrated in FIGS.
13 in order to reduce the effects of Johnson noise.
21, paddle assembly 2242 forms a piezoelectric generator such that when piezoelectric layer 2246 is displaced from its resting location, stress is placed on piezoelectric layer 2246 that creates a potential between upper conductive layer 2244 and lower conductive layer 2245. Switch 2291 controls when this potential is allowed to pass onto the output of system 2200 (shown in system 2300 of FIG. Rather, system 2300 converts unusually high spikes of Johnson noise into a useable energy source. 13 in order to reduce the effects of Johnson noise. FIG. 8 is an illustrative schematic diagram of a portion of the nanometer scale electromechanical system of FIG. FIG. 16 is an illustrative schematic diagram of a portion of the nanometer scale electromechanical system of FIG. Dolor en el pegue de la pierna derecha . The portion shown includes an impact mass in the form of paddle 100, a restraining member 102, an generator device 104 (which provides an electrical output at leads 106), and a base 108 (which is typically thousands or millions times larger than paddle 100). Paddle 100 is attached to base 108, which may be thermally conductive, but need not be, so that paddle 100 may be moved within a predetermined range of distance in one or more directions (such as laterally, or up and down).