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Man in casual office style clothes jumping and dancing isolated on grey The power into a load that is other than optimal will be diminished. From the figure it can be seen that the 7.5 mm actuator produces a far greater amount of energy than the 3 or 6 mm actuators (The fact that the energy produced by the 3 mm and 6 mm actuators is similar is just coincidental given the initial excitation and is not an inherent limitation of the actuators). From the figure it can be seen that better than 2 mJ of energy are stored from a single displacement of the actuator. If mechanical amplifier 10 is formed from an electrically conductive material such as metal, it is convenient to insert an insulator 101 (shown on FIG. Such stacks are known in the art and generally comprise sections 110 of piezoelectric material 111, each having opposing positive electrode 112 and negative electrode 116. Positive terminal 114 and negative terminal 118 may be used for convenient attachment of wires or conductive strips so that an electric charge can be applied and the sections 110 in a stack 100 may be electrically joined.

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Another type of multilayer piezoelectric stack 100 suitable for use with the present disclosure is a stack 100 formed of sections 110 of a single-crystal piezo material. One type of piezoelectric stack 100 suitable for use in certain embodiments of actuator 1 of the present disclosure are multilayer piezoelectric stacks.

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As will be understood by those of skill in the art, this is only one example and many different stack sizes can be formed using different numbers of layers, and different layer thicknesses, thereby providing for actuators suitable for a wide variety of applications. Accordingly, the design of mechanical amplifier 10 amplifies the mechanical motion created by piezoelectric stack 100 into greater mechanical motion at the ends of actuator arms 40. In this way, actuator 1 may be activated by applying an electric potential to piezoelectric stack 100, thereby causing it to expand and urge second movable supporting member 30, which causes corresponding but amplified movement of actuator arms 40. As is discussed further below, reverse operation is also possible in which at least one actuator arm 40 is moved by a mechanical force, thereby causing movable supporting member 30 to alternately compress and expand piezoelectric stack 100, which in turn causes piezoelectric stack 100 to generate an electric potential which can then be discharged into an electrical load such as a rechargeable power source (not shown).

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Technology digital splash or explosion of data points background. point dance waveform. <a href=Dolor en los dedos de la mano derecha . cyber ui, hud element." loading="lazy" style="clear:both; float:left; padding:10px 10px 10px 0px;border:0px; max-width: 330px;"> Additional stiffening of the parallel supporting members and mechanical links of the actuator can further increase the efficiency of the energy harvesting. The illustrated embodiment of actuator 1 further comprises actuating arms 40, which are joined with fixed supporting member 20 and movable supporting member 30 by mechanical links 32. Mechanical links 32 (also called webs) are compliant and adapted such that urging movable supporting member 30 away from fixed supporting member 20 will cause mechanical links 32 to flex, thereby causing actuator arms 40 to move toward one another. Piezoelectric stack 100 will benefit from being compressed by a predetermined amount, thereby creating a preload, such that the piezoelectric stack 100 remains compressed when no electric potential is applied. The result is a very efficient method of translating mechanical energy into electrical energy that can be utilized to generate electrical current from waste vibration or mechanical motion in a wide variety of applications.

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Thus the initial step displacement charges the stack capacitance to a DC value that is dependent on the initial displacement and an overriding oscillating voltage is superimposed on the DC voltage due to the cyclical strain induced on the stack by the oscillating actuator structure. Volts following the initial displacement (In this test the actuator was displaced and then held fixed at the initial displacement value). From the time history of the voltage output into the loads, and the value of the attached loads, the instantaneous power delivered into each of the loads can be determined.

Other changes, substitutions, and alterations are also possible without departing from the spirit and scope of this disclosure. Set-up and Procedure: Performance of the method and apparatus of the present disclosure may be measured by determining the electrical output of the actuators when subjected to a known excitation. For comparison, the AdaptivEnergy energy harvesting module will accumulate 45 mJ in one minute with an excitation of 1.0 G amplitude at 60 Hz. FIG. 14 shows the energy generated by the actuators per excitation event. Since the amplitude of the voltage output of the actuators 1 and their electrical impedance were unknown a series of tests were performed to get a baseline. From the figure it can be seen that peak voltages of up to 20 V were observed into the loads.

The optimal load for the 3 mm and 6 mm actuators were determined to be 270 and 230 Ohms, respectively. This is simply the discharge of a RC circuit whereby the time constant and thus discharge rates vary as the attached load varies. Different materials having different spring rates will, accordingly, require different configurations of mechanical amplifier 10 to achieve comparable results.

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FIG. 9 shows the instantaneous power output of the 7.5 mm actuator into the 250 Ohm optimal load for two different values of initial displacement. Cansancio de piernas y dolor de espalda . When the stack voltage reached 0.25 Volts the 250 Ohm load was removed. At the approximate 14 second mark in the figure, the 250 Ohm load is reconnected and the stack voltage begins to decay at the previous rate. The subsequent voltage decay is due to the internal leakage of the stack and any losses in the attached data acquisition electronics.