The positive feedback mechanism, induced by imparting an angular velocity to the incoming fluid flow entering the mouth of the fluid directing arrangement 100, results in a large suction pressure being created along the axis of the flow accelerating constriction. High suction pressures are achieved in the arrangement of Figure 1 by using the deflectors 500 to impart angular momentum to a portion of the incoming tidal flow just before it enters the fluid directing arrangement 100. Figure 2 schematically illustrates a cylinder of fluid having a tidal flow velocity along the z-axis to which a component of angular velocity co has been imparted.
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This positive feedback mechanism progresses until the pressure along the axis is (at least theoretically) substantially zero so that no further pressure reduction can be achieved. In turn, this blocking effect forces fluid mass towards the centre of the flow thereby decreasing the moment of inertia and driving an increase in angular velocity for conservation of angular momentum. Preferred embodiments comprise an air collection tank for collecting driving fluid from an outflow of the flow accelerating constriction. Furthermore, in this embodiment the driving fluid (air) is not supplied to the mouth of the Venturi by a portion of conduit (200a, 200c in Figure 1) fed from the outflow of the turbine 300. Rather, the driving fluid inlet is a spontaneously formed vortex 120 that extends from the water surface down to the mouth of the Venturi 100. Air is sucked into the core of the vortex from the atmosphere at the water’s surface and air bubbles are entrained in the swirling water of the vortex which drives them down to the mouth of the Venturi 100 whereupon the air is sucked through the flow accelerating constriction to the air collection tank 400. It can be seen from Figure 3 that the radius Rv of the vortex at the water’s surface is much larger than the radius of the vortex at the mouth of the Venturi.
In the embodiment of Figure 8 the Venturi channel extends up towards the water surface from constriction 116 to tail 118, the diameter of the channel increasing towards the tail. Accordingly, an alternative embodiment of the invention comprises all structural components of Figure 1 except the fluid flow deflectors 500. In such an embodiment the air inlet portion 200c of the conduit should be situated such that it substantially coincides with the central axis of the vortex formed within the Venturi 100. The central axis of a spontaneously formed vortex will not necessarily coincide with the central axis of the flow accelerating constriction of the Venturi. As mentioned above, although the deflectors 500 serve to deliberately induce vortex formation by exploiting the positive feedback mechanism in the flow accelerating constriction, the deflectors are not essential to obtaining the vortex since even small imbalances in flow of the primary fluid through the Venturi 100 may be sufficient to induce the positive feedback mechanism.
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However, the deflectors 500 are optional since it is recognised that rotational flow may occur spontaneously in the channel of the Venturi due to small instabilities in fluid flow. In the example embodiment of Figure 1, the deflectors 500 correspond to a stator having a static array of fixed angle blades as schematically illustrated in Figure 4. Dolor lumbar por hernia discal . The stator is similar in structure to a turbofan on a jet engine, although the stator has fewer blades. The deflectors 500 have forced all water entering the fluid directing arrangement 100 to have substantially constant angular velocity ω, at least initially on entry to the mouth of the fluid directing arrangement 100. Accordingly, the pressure increase due to centrifugal force is greatest at the circumference, that is, proximal to the inner wall of the channel formed by the inlet horn of the fluid directing aπangement 100. As the fluid progresses through the flow accelerating portion of the channel under the influence of vrZj the radially dependent pressure increase due to centrifugal force at least partially offsets the pressure reduction (associated with the Bernoulli effect), which arises due to the increase in vrz induced by the flow accelerating constriction.