In the application of this invention to the tidal turbine concept we have previously 15 described in our British Patents GB 2311566 and 2348250, the turbines are mounted on a mono-piled support structure that is installed in a socket drilled into the seabed or river bed and the upper end of said support mono-pile emerges above the surface of the flowing water current. Patents GB 2256011 B, GB 2311566 B and No 2348250 we have disclosed constructions pertaining to water driveable turbines; i.e. For example, in our British Patents GB 2256011 B, GB 2311566 B and No 2348250 we have disclosed constructions pertaining to water driveable turbines; i.e. For example, gear, vane, lobe or other types of low speed, high pressure positive-displacement pumps could be used. 10 Conveniently, pumps utilised may be presented in a variety of configurations, such that, for example, a piston or plunger pump may have a multiplicity of cylinders disposed radially around the cam or driving crank on the main shaft, or the cylinders may be disposed axially along a camshaft or crankshaft, or there may be a series of radially disposed cylinders set axially along a camshaft or 15 crankshaft.
- Alteraciones de la presión arterial
- Calor localizado
- Caída del pelo
- Trastornos de concentración o memoria
- Competencia intraespecífica con otros seres humanos
- Detener el sangrado
- Sensación de chasquido al momento de la lesión
- A hinge apparatus, it comprises
WO 2004/055365 PCT/GB2003/005378 -5 In accordance with a further aspect of the invention a hydraulic power transmission system using water as a working fluid is utilised to achieve the desired increment in speed to couple a low speed tidal or river current turbine rotor to a conventional electrical generator or to other high speed machinery.
10 Preferably each said rotor is associated with a plurality of separate pumps arranged to be operationally driven from the associated rotor, and the hydraulic fluid inputs to the pumps are connected to receive fluid from a low pressure fluid plenum and the output sides of all said pumps are associated with a common high pressure plenum connecting via high pressure fluid circuit with the hydraulic motor or rotor coupled to drive a 15 generator or other machinery. 1 n Therefore, it becomes necessary to provide some means for speeding up the output gained from the rotation of a slow moving rotor in order to effectively drive an electrical generator or other relatively high speed machinery. When the concept of the invention is applied to this method for extracting kinetic energy from currents then the low 20 pressure and the high pressure transmission pipes will carry the flow to and from a water motor or Pelton Turbine driving a generator that is preferably located above the surface of the water in a weather proof housing on the top of the supporting mono-pile.
Dolor En El Hombro
The Figure 7 also shows the water motor or Pelton Turbine 35 driving an 15 electrical generator 38 by way of pulleys and a belt transmission 39. This is primarily to clarify the principles being illustrated since in practice the generator 38 may in fact be direct coupled to the water motor or Pelton Turbine 35 (i.e.
Dolor De Espalda
WO 2004/055365 PCT/GB2003/005378 To accommodate any such leakage a make-up water supply 40 is provided in which a header tank 41 is mounted such that its water static level 42 is immediately below the water motor or Pelton Turbine 35 as illustrated, so that if the level in the return supply pipe 34 falls significantly below that in the header 5 tank, some make up water will flow from the header tank through a non-return valve 43 into the circuit near the top of the low pressure return supply pipe 33. The header tank 41 is topped up when a level sensor 44 detects that the water level has fallen below some predetermined level; when this happens a small feed pump 45 is operated to draw water from the surroundings to the system through 1 n an intake with a strainer and filter system 46 and to pump it through a makeup water feed pipe 47 into the header tank 41. When the water level in the header tank 41 exceeds a predetermined height, then the feed pump 45 is switched off.
However gearboxes 20 of such a kind are complicated mechanically, heavy to handle, costly, suffer significant wear and require regular maintenance to replace the lubricant conventionally provided between relatively moving components of the turbines. In practice, return spring arrangements (not shown) can be provided inside each cylinder. Each turbine unit 3 includes a rotor 6 carried by a rotor shaft (not separately shown) that forms part of a very schematically indicated rotor rotation 75 transmission system 7 including a drive-train (not shown). For example an axial flow tidal or river current turbine rotor 15m in diameter will typically rotate at about 10 revolutions per minute in a driving water current of 2 15 to 2.5m/s (4 to 5 knots) but most conventional electricity generators typically require to be driven at shaft speeds of 1000, 1500 or more revolutions per minute.
Dolor Espalda Y Abdomen
No matter what kind of rotor is used, whether an axial flow or propeller type of rotor or a cross-flow rotor of the so-called Darrieus type, or even some other form of hydrofoil device reacting against the flow of water currents, the rotation of a rotor driven by the movement of water currents will be slow due 5 to the fact that even the fastest of water currents only run at relatively slow speeds in the range from 2 to 4m/s at most and the rotor extremities cannot generally move much faster than 10 to 15m/s. Consequently only small devices can rotate at reasonably high speeds since the larger the device i.e., diameter of the rotor, generally the smaller the angular movement in a given time. Referring now to Figure 7, this Figure is a schematic diagram showing an embodiment of a system incorporating the concepts of the present invention and in particular illustrates how the system shown therein could be applied to an 1 n installation such as that in shown in Figures 1 to 6. Although Figure 7 shows the concepts of invention as applied to a turbine installation involving two rotors the concepts of the present invention could be applied to a single turbine installation or to installations involving more that two turbine 15 Referring now to Figure 7 in which a rotor 20 of a turbine installation (not shown in detail) is depicted in broken lines, the direction of rotor rotation being indicated by the part circular broken line 21. The rotor 20 is arranged to rotate a shaft 22 mounting a cam drive 23 comprising in this example of an offset circular profile.
5 In a preferred arrangement it is proposed to directly couple a low speed, positive displacement hydraulic pump to the turbine rotor drive shaft. The concepts of the invention may be applied to water current turbines with more than one rotor, in which case each rotor will be coupled to a similar low speed, positive displacement pump fed with the same working fluid that the turbine runs in, whereby if the pump is in the sea it will be sea water, if in an inland river it 20 may be freshwater.
Preferably any makeup water required for the proposals of the present invention is drawn through a strainer and then a filter by an ancillary pump and fed into a 10 header tank or storage tank; it being arranged that said pump only functions at times when a float or other level indicating transducer signals that the water level in the header or storage tank has fallen below some predetermined level and ceases to function when the header or storage tank is replenished to another higher predetermined level. Any discussion of documents, acts, materials, devices, articles or the like which has been included in the present specification is solely for the purpose of providing a 10 context for the present invention. The structure 4 15 is carried by a collar like sleeve 5 longitudinally displaceable lengthways of the support column 1. Dolor intenso de hombro derecho . The profiling of the structure 4 is such as to assist in reducing as far as possible the creation of undesirable water drag effects in water passing over the surface of the structure 4 and to minimise the water wake at the trailing edge of the structure.
In Figures 1 and 2 the assembly 2 is shown as being located with the axes of the 25 turbine unit rotors 6 positioned approximately halfway between the water surface WL and the seabed SB. In the Figures I to 4 the turbine assembly is shown as comprising two turbine units 3 mounted one to each of the extremities of a horizontal wing-like support structure 4 including an internal spar (not separately shown) within an outer housing (not separately shown) streamlined in cross section.
Tipos De Dolor Oms
WO 2004/055365 PCT/GB2003/005378 -in It will be noted from the Figure 4 section on the line B-B of Figure 2 that the lower or base section 13 of the column is of a solid circular cross-section. 20 Since some of the water used as hydraulic fluid may leak from the circuit, especially from the high pressure pump or pumps (assemblies 24), any losses will need to be made up to ensure a continuous feed supply to the pump or pumps.
The high pressure water main 33 transports the high pressure water emitted from 5 the pumps 24 to a water motor or Pelton Turbine 35 that provides an efficient and well known mechanism for obtaining a high speed output from a jet (or in some cases several jets) of water. The water motor or Pelton turbine will generally be driven by one or more jets of water impinging on a specially shaped runner; such devices are prior art and well known. 25 THE PRIOR ART It is known how to use turbines for such above mentioned purposes. The most generally proposed technique, which is prior art, is by using a multistage gearbox. In most cases said feed pump will be electrically energised. In a preferred arrangement such make up water is filtered to remove suspended solids 30 or other undesirable pollutants before being stored in a header tank situated 4A in such a position that it can feed make-up water into the system to replace and water lost through leakage.. Dolor en un costado de la espalda