US7353747B2 – Electroactive Polymer-based Pump – Google Patents

Energy delivery to the second actuator 22 b is then terminated such that the second actuator 22 b radially expands to return to its original, deactivated configuration, as shown in FIG. 3D, while maintaining energy delivery to the second actuator 22 b, energy delivery to the first actuator 22 a is terminated, thereby causing the first actuator 22 a to radially expand and return to an original, deactivated configuration.

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Pdf Crack The first type is a fiber bundle that can consist of numerous fibers bundled together to work in cooperation. The electrodes can extend through the inner lumen 18 of the elongate member 12, be embedded in the sidewalls of the elongate member 12, or they can extend along an external surface of the elongate member 12. The electrodes can couple to a battery source, or they can extend through an electrical cord that is adapted to couple to an electrical outlet. EAPs can be deformed repetitively by applying external voltage across the EAPS, and they can quickly recover their original configuration upon reversing the polarity of the applied voltage. The actuator can also include a return electrode and a delivery electrode coupled thereto, with the delivery electrode being adapted to deliver energy to each actuator from an external energy source. The energy delivering electrode 108 b can be, for example, a platinum cathode wire.

Remedios caseros para el dolor de oído - Consejos rápidos For example, FIG. 6 illustrates a cross-sectional view of a pump 10′ having an outer elongate member 24′ and a flexible inner elongate member 12′ that define a fluid flow passageway therebetween. The actuators 322 that are disposed within the sheath 348 are preferably configured to axially contract and expand, i.e., decrease and increase in length, to essentially pull the sheath 348 toward the central hub 342, or push the sheath 348 away from the central hub 342. Sequential activation of the actuators 322 will therefore move the inner housing in a generally circular pattern within the outer housing 340, thereby pumping fluid through the outer housing 340. A person skilled in the art will appreciate that the actuators 322 can be configured to axially expand, i.e., increase in length, when energy is delivered thereto, rather than axially contract. 3C. As a result, fluid within the inner lumen 18 will be forced in the distal direction toward the distal end 16 of the elongate member 12. As shown in FIG.

3G, to radially contract the fourth actuator 22 d and further pump fluid in the distal direction. 3F. Energy can then be delivered to a fourth actuator 22 d, as shown in FIG. FIGS. 9A and 9 b illustrate the pumping action of the actuators 22″ in pump 10″ of FIG. In particular, the pump 10″ can include an elongate member 26″ defining a passageway 28″ therethrough for providing access to a surgical site for the delivery of instruments, fluid, or other materials, and/or for visual inspection. BRIEF SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION The present invention generally provides methods and devices for pumping substances, such as fluids, gases, and/or solids. Natacion para dolor lumbar . An inner flexible sheath 30″ and outer flexible sheath 32″ are disposed around the elongate member 26″ and they are spaced a distance apart from one another such that they are adapted to seat the actuators 22″ therebetween.

Another type of EAP is a laminate structure, which consists of one or more layers of an EAP, a layer of ionic gel or fluid disposed between each layer of EAP, and one or more flexible conductive plates attached to the structure, such as a positive plate electrode and a negative plate electrode.

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9A, some of the actuators, e.g., actuators 22 d″ and 22 i″, are fully activated to constrict the inner sheath 30″ such that a portion of the inner sheath 30″ adjacent to the 22 d″, 22 i″ is positioned against the elongate member 26″. Adjacent actuators, e.g., actuators 22 b″, 22 c″, 22 e′, 22 g″, 22 h″, 22 j″, are partially activated or partially deactivated, depending on the desired direction of movement of the fluid, and the remaining actuators, e.g., actuators 22 a ″ and 22 f″ are fully deactivated and in a fully expanded configuration. The energy will cause the ions in the ionic fluid to enter into the EAP fibers 104, thereby causing the fibers 104 to expand in one direction, e.g., radially such that an outer diameter of each fiber 104 increases, and to contract in a transverse direction, e.g., axially such that a length of the fibers decreases.

Sequential movement of the actuators can draw fluid into one passageway and can expel fluid from an adjacent passageway. As noted above, the fibers 104 can be arranged in various orientations to provide a desired outcome, e.g., radial expansion or contraction, or bending movement. 10A, some of the actuators, e.g., actuators 322 f, 322 g, 322 h, 322 i, and 322 j, are partially or fully activated (energy is delivered to the actuators) such that they are axially contracted to pull the portion of the sheath 348 coupled thereto toward the central hub 348. As a result, a crescent shaped area is formed within the outer housing 340 into which fluid 356 is drawn.

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10B, the inner housing assembly is shifted by at least partially deactivating some of the previously activated actuators, e.g., actuators 322 f, and 322 g, and by at least partially activating adjacent actuators, e.g., actuators 322 i, 322 j, 322 k, 322 l, and 322 a. The conductive polymer can be paired with some form of ionic fluid or gel using electrodes.

  1. Larger design circle
  2. Crujido o chirrido con movimiento de la articulación
  3. Diluye el bicarbonato de sodio y el vinagre de manzana en el vaso de agua tibia
  4. Milnacipran (Savella)

A person skilled in the art will appreciate that actuators 22 a-22 e can alternatively be disposed within the elongate member 12, or they can be integrally formed with the elongate member 12. The actuators 22 a-22 e can also be coupled to one another to form an elongate tubular member, thereby eliminating the need for the flexible member 12. A person skilled in the art will also appreciate that, while five actuators 22 a-22 e are shown, the pump 10 can include any number of actuators. A flexible exterior outer sheath will form the other electrode for the actuator as well as contain the ionic fluid necessary for the function of the device. In use, energy can be delivered to the actuator 100 through the active energy delivery electrode 108 b and the conductive outer sheath 102 (anode).