Invention Title: Electroactive polymer-based pump The following statement is a full description of this invention, including the best method of performing it known to us: ELECTROACTIVE POLYMER-BASED PUMP BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION Pumps play an important role in a variety of medical procedures. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS The invention will be more fully understood from the following detailed description taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, in which: FIG. Sequential movement of the actuators can O draw fluid into one passageway and can expel fluid from an adjacent passageway. 5, the pump 10 can include a rigid or semirigid internal member 26 that defines an axial passageway 28 through the pump 10. In use, the passageway 28 can provide, for example, access to a surgical site for the delivery of instruments, fluid, or other materials, and/or for visual inspection.
2- SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION The present invention generally provides methods and devices for pumping substances, such as fluids, gases, and/or solids. Those of ordinary skill in the art will understand that the devices and methods specifically described herein and illustrated in the accompanying drawings are nonlimiting exemplary embodiments and that the scope of the present invention is defined solely by the claims. Certain exemplary embodiments will now be described to provide an overall understanding of the principles of the structure, function, manufacture, and use of the devices and methods disclosed herein. All publications and references cited herein are expressly incorporated herein S by reference in their entirety. 2B, and as shown the layer 210 includes a first flexible conductive plate 212a, an EAP layer 214, an ionic gel layer 216, and a second I flexible conductive plate 212b, all of which are attached to one another to form a laminate composite.
In use, energy can be delivered to the actuator 100 through the active energy delivery electrode 108b and the conductive outer sheath 102 (anode). As a result, the actuators 22a-j” collectively form a wave configuration along the length of the pump. As energy delivery to each actuator 22a-j” continues to shift between fully activated and fully deactivated, the actuators 22a-j” will continue to expand and contract, thereby moving fluid through the pathways 36″, 38″. As shown in FIG. 9B, actuators 22d” and 22i” are fully deactivated such that they are radially expanded, adjacent actuators 22b”, 22c”, 22e’, 22g”, 22h”, 22j” are partially activated or partially deactivated, and actuators 22a” and 22f’ are fully activated and in a fully contracted configuration. The actuators 22a-j” thus create pressure in the fluid pathways 36″, 38″ to squeeze the fluid therethrough. 3D, while maintaining energy delivery to the second actuator 22b, energy delivery to the first actuator 22a is terminated, thereby causing the first actuator 22a to radially expand and return to an original, deactivated configuration.
Tipos De Dolor Torácico
In an exemplary embodiment, the ,i orientation of the actuators 22a-22e is arranged such that the actuators 22a-22e will radially contract and axially expand upon the application of energy thereto. The composite can also include an energy delivering electrode 218a and a return S electrode 218b coupled to the flexible conductive plates 212a, 212b, as further shown in FIG.
Dolor De Cabeza
As shown, the actuator 100 generally includes a flexible conductive outer sheath 102 that is in the form of an elongate cylindrical member having opposed insulative end -7- 0 caps 102a, 102b formed thereon. As is further shown, the conductive outer sheath 102 is coupled to a return electrode 108a, and an energy delivering electrode 108b ID extends through one of the insulative end caps, end cap 102a, through the inner lumen of the conductive outer sheath 102, and into the opposed insulative end cap, end cap 102b. The S energy delivering electrode 108b can be, for example, a platinum cathode wire. 3G, to radially contract the fourth actuator 22d and further pump fluid in the distal direction. Dolor de testiculos y pierna . 3A with the third and fourth actuators activated; FIG. 3E is a perspective view of the pump of FIG. 3G is a perspective view of the pump of FIG. 4 is a cross-sectional view of another embodiment of a pump having an actuator positioned around the outside of an internal lumen; FIG.
Dolor De Oidos
8; FIG. 10A is a cross-sectional view of another embodiment of a pump disclosed herein; SFIG. 7 is a cross-sectional view of another embodiment of a pump disclosed herein; FIG. 2A; FIG. 3A is a perspective view of one exemplary embodiment of a pump having multiple Ni actuators disposed around a flexible tube; FIG. Ejercicios con dolor lumbar . FIGS. 10A-I O0D illustrate one embodiment of a pump 310 having an outer housing 340 that defines a fluid passageway 341 therethrough, and that includes inlet and outlet ports 350, 352. A central hub 342 is disposed within the outer housing 340 and it includes multiple actuators 322 extending therefrom in a radial configuration. 322f, 322g, 322h, 322i, and 322j, are partially or fully activated (energy is delivered to the actuators) such that they are axially contracted to pull the portion of the sheath 348 coupled thereto toward the central hub 348. As a result, a crescent shaped area is formed within the outer housing 340 into which fluid 356 is drawn.
Sequential activation of the actuators 322 will therefore move the inner housing in a generally N, circular pattern within the outer housing 340, thereby pumping fluid through the outer housing F 340. A person skilled in the art will appreciate that the actuators 322 can be configured to ,I axially expand, increase in length, when energy is delivered thereto, rather than axially contract. The actuators are adapted to change shape upon the application of energy O thereto such that sequential activation of the plurality of actuators is adapted to create pumping M’ action to move fluid through the first member.
For (Ni r example, energy can be again delivered to actuators 22a-22e to create a second pulse. S 2B. In use, energy can be delivered to the actuator 200 through the active energy delivering electrode 218a. The energy will cause the ions in the ionic gel layer 216 to enter into the EAP layer 214, thereby causing the layer 214 to expand in one direction and to contract in a transverse direction. The energy will cause the ions in the ionic fluid to enter into the EAP fibers 104, thereby causing the fibers 104 to expand in one direction, radially such that an outer diameter of each fiber 104 increases, and to contract in a transverse direction, axially such that a length of the fibers decreases.
Dolor Muscular Bayer
In the illustrated embodiment, the actuators 22a-22e are formed from an EAP laminate or composite that is rolled around an outer surface 20 of the elongate member 12. An adhesive or other mating technique can be used to attach the actuators 22a-22e to the elongate member 12. The actuators 22a-22e are preferably spaced a distance apart from one another to allow the actuators 22a-22e to radially contract and axially expand when energy is delivered thereto, however they can be positioned in contact with one another. The pump also includes multiple EAP actuators 22a, 22b, 22c, 22d, 22e that are disposed around the outer S surface 20 of the elongate member 12. In use, as will be explained in more detail below, the N actuators 22a-22e can be sequentially activated using electrical energy to cause the actuators 22a-22e to radially contract, thereby contracting the elongate member 12 and moving fluid ID therethrough.
8; FIG. 9B is a cross-sectional view of the pump of FIG. 3C is a perspective view of the pump of FIG. A person skilled in the art will appreciate that actuators 22a-22e can alternatively be disposed within the elongate member 12, or they can be integrally formed with the elongate member 12. The actuators 22a-22e can also be coupled to one another to form an elongate tubular member, thereby eliminating the need for the flexible member 12. A person skilled in the art will also appreciate that, while five actuators 22a-22e are shown, the pump can include any number of actuators. Dificultad para respirar dolor de espalda . 2A, the actuator 200 can include multiple layers, e.g., five layers 210, 210a, 210b, 210c, 210d are shown, of a laminate EAP composite that are affixed 0 to one another by adhesive layers 103a, 103b, 103c, 103d disposed therebetween.
Energy is then delivered to a third actuator 22c adjacent to the second actuator 22b to cause the third actuator 22c to radially contract, as shown in FIG. As previously explained, the amount of energy delivered to each actuator can correlate to the amount of radial expansion or N contraction that occurs. 3A with the first actuator deactivated and the second actuator activated; FIG. 3A with the second actuator deactivated and the third actuator activated; FIG. 1 A; FIG. 2A is a cross-sectional view of a prior art laminate type EAP actuator having multiple EAP composite layers; -4- O FIG. 10 OD is a perspective view of the pump of FIG. 10B is a cross-sectional view of the pump of FIG. 1 B is a radial cross-sectional view of the prior art actuator shown in FIG. One C skilled in the art will appreciate that the second pulse can follow directly behind the first pulse by C activating the first actuator 22a at the same time as the last actuator 22d, or alternatively the second pulse can follow the first pulse some time later.
- Un cabestrillo u otro aparato para inmovilizar los huesos
- Las manos van detrás de la cabeza
- Provisional Patent Application 62/156,398
- FIG. 12 shows the current delivered by the actuators into the various loads
- Efecto miorrelajante
- Verduras de hoja verde
- Aumento o pérdida de peso
- Eliminación de la anemia: 99%
One of the main advantages of EAPs is the possibility to electrically control and finetune their behavior and properties. EAPs can be deformed repetitively by applying external C voltage across the EAPS, and they can quickly recover their original configuration upon reversing the polarity of the applied voltage. Typically, a voltage potential N, in the range of about IV to 4kV can be applied depending on the particular polymer and ionic fluid or gel used.