The presence of substrate 910 acts to increase the distance between an upper surface of piezoelectric material 112 and a neutral axis of generator 900, increasing the strain, and thus the voltage and power outputs, of piezoelectric material 112. Leads 118 may direct an AC voltage Vac and thus AC power, generated by generator 900 to converter 400 (Figure 4) to convert the AC voltage to a DC voltage Vqc. Controller 450 may be electrically coupled to the DC output (e.g., DC current and voltage output) of converter 400 and may be configured to receive the DC voltage Vqc and DC current from converter 100 and may be configured to determine the DC power output of convertor 400 from the DC voltage Vqc ar|d the DC current.
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For the embodiments, a generator 100 and a converter 400 form a fluid power generation system, such as a wind-power generation system or kinetic hydropower generation system. For some embodiments, at least one of the end boundary constraints 1130 may be an active boundary constraint. Opposing ends of generator 100 are respectively physically coupled to end boundary constraints 1130 so that generator 100 extends from one boundary constraint 1130 to the other end boundary constraint 1130. For example, one of end boundary constraints 1130 may be physically coupled to piezoelectric material 112 adjacent to one of its ends and another one of end boundary constraints 1130 may be physically coupled to piezoelectric material 112 adjacent to the other one of its ends. End boundary constraints 1130 affect the substantially planar bending of generator 100. For example, different end boundary constraints 1130 change the substantially planar bending, and thus the substantially planar vibration of generator 100. Each of the end boundary constraints 1130 may include one or more end translational stiffness elements 1132 and/or one or more end torsional stiffness elements 1134, as shown in Figure 11 and Figure 12 an enlarged view, taken along line 12-12 in Figure 11, of an end of fluid power generation system 1100. For some embodiments, the end torsional and/or end translational stiffness elements may be active may include shape memory material or piezoelectric material.
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For example, the change in shape may alter the strain distribution in the generator and in piezoelectric material 112, and thus the power output of the generator. Controller 450 may be configured to determine which of the active masses 500 receives the a signal based on the flow rate and a desired power output, where a value corresponding to the desired power output is either input to controller 450 by a user or is preprogrammed into controller 450. For example, controller 450 may include a look-up table 470 that specifies which of the active masses 500 are to receive a signal versus the flow velocity at each of a plurality of power outputs. Non-limiting examples of suitable power conditioners include the SVC LIGHT® with Energy Storage manufactured by ABB, Inc., Zurich, Switzerland and the E-FORCE® Air-Cooled Wind Inverter manufactured by Magnetek, Menomonee Falls, Wisconsin, U.S.A.
Such turbines are complex machines with several sub-machines that convert the kinetic energy of the moving fluid to electrical power. Figure 9 is a cross-sectional view (with cross-hatching omitted for clarity) of a generator 900, e.g., as a portion of a fluid power generation system 1000, taken along line 9-9 of Figure 10, where common numbering is used in Figures 1 and 9 to denote substantially similar (e.g., the same components). Controller 450 may be further configured to output one or more electrical signals S, e.g., electrical signals S7-S/For some embodiments, the one or more electrical signals S may be used to adjust one or more vibration control parameters of generator 100, such as the tension of generator 100, a stiffness of one or more boundary constraints physically coupled to generator 100, e.g., one or more end boundary constraints and/or one or more side boundary constraints, and/or a distribution of mass on generator 100, for producing a particular power output.
These embodiments are described in sufficient detail to enable those skilled in the art to practice disclosed subject matter, and it is to be understood that other embodiments may be utilized and that process, electrical or mechanical changes may be made without departing from the scope of the claimed subject matter. Dolor de espalda bicicleta . The following detailed description is, therefore, not to be taken in a limiting sense, and the scope of the claimed subject matter is defined only by the appended claims.