US8378513B2 – Method And Device For Harvesting Energy From Ocean Waves – Google Patents

Successful harvesting of energy from the ocean can help to relive the load at the point of demand on some of the most heavily populated regions of the United States. Many nations around the world including the United Kingdom, Australia, China and India have densely populated coast-lines that can benefit substantially by harvesting power from ocean waves.

HILO DEL PRUIR Alternatively, the tethers may be omitted altogether, so that the magnetostrictive elements extend from the anchors to the buoys. Based on the design outlined above, some embodiments may account for specific variations in sea level due to factors such as tides for ensuring that the structure continues to function as an effective power generation source while the external environment varies. FIG. 3 depicts a graph 120 of calculation results of initial analysis of power generation from ocean waves using one embodiment of a magnetostrictive element subjected to a cycling load employing a partially submerged buoy. Embodiments of the design combine proven concepts from existing technologies, such as the oscillating buoy concept used in the Pelamis machine with technology proven on the bench scale for energy generation using magnetostrictive devices to create a powerful solution for harvesting energy from ocean waves.

SUMMARY Embodiments described herein include a method and device for converting the mechanical energy of oscillating ocean waves into magnetic and electrical energy using a novel design that utilizes magnetostrictive elements. It is estimated that the energy cost per kW from ocean energy with conventional technologies is around 20 cents/kWh, a level at which some form of subsidies are required for the technology to be widely adopted. Such technology will not only fuel economic growth and contribute to global environmental sustainability, but also reduce a nation’s energy dependence on foreign oil in coming decades. The geometry of the individual magnetostrictive elements may be defined such that, for the appropriate type of buoy, the expected loads generated will result in strains that are below the saturation magnetostriction.

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Such energy may be supplied on demand or via a storage device such as a battery 146 (refer to FIG. In one embodiment, the energy for the tension control system may be supplied by the corresponding magnetostrictive elements and coils. 18, 2010, entitled “Method and Device for Harvesting Energy from Ocean Waves,” which is a continuation of U.S. Some embodiments may include power management strategies to optimize the delivered power from a suite of these devices distributed across the ocean surface. While the actual geometry of ocean waves is complex and is a cumulative summation of a spectrum of wavelets that result in changes in the effective amplitude and frequency, for the purpose of the discussion here, waves are considered to be sinusoidal for simplicity. This analysis utilized a very simple model that assumed that a magnetostrictive member, with a cross-section of 2 cm×2 cm and length 2 m, is subject to a sinusoidal load varying from ˜490 to ˜1145 N, loads that can be easily generated by partial submersion of a buoy of weight 50 kg and effective density of around 300 kg/m3.

Large scale efforts to tap energy from the ocean continue to be hampered by high energy costs and low energy densities. Dolor de espalda alta y torax . Since the strength and profile of the changing magnetic flux density may depend on the configuration of the magnetostrictive element, and the sensitivity of the coil may depend on the construction and placement of the coil, the “vicinity” of the magnetostrictive element may vary from one embodiment to another. 1. In the depicted embodiment, the magnetostrictive element 106 includes a polymer coated copper coil 112, an external protective polymer sheath 114, and a magnetostrictive rod 116. The illustration of the magnetostrictive element and coil, shown in FIG. FIG. 2 depicts a schematic diagram of one embodiment of the magnetostrictive elements 106 of the energy harvesting device 100 of FIG.

1. As explained above, the illustrated energy harvesting device 100 includes a tether controller 140 with one or more pulleys 142 and/or sensors 144. Although the pulleys and sensors are shown as part of the anchors, other embodiments may include pulleys and/or sensors in different parts of the overall configurations, e.g., at the buoys, between the tethers and magnetostrictive elements, and so forth. 2. A core-rod of magnetostrictive material is wound with polymer (e.g., Teflon, PTFE) coated copper wire to the desired number of turns. Alternatively, the external sheath may be another material to provide corrosion protection of the magnetostrictive rod. The external sheath can also be of the same or similar material as the polymer coating.

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Within the area of wave energy harvesting, devices can again be sub-divided into on-shore and off-shore devices. Of these various methods, the harvesting of wave energy is of particular importance. In some embodiments, multiple energy harvesting devices are coupled to a power management system 148, which combines the electrical energy generated at each of the energy harvesting devices into one or more outputs with higher voltages and/or overall power. More specifically, the vicinity may be limited to distances at which the coil experiences a measurable change in the magnetic flux density of the magnetostrictive element.

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The force, which could be a tensile force, results in a magnetic flux change in the magnetostrictive element. The electromagnetic induction structure produces electric power through electromagnetic induction in response to the magnetic flux change of the magnetostrictive element. Numerical models to be developed are expected to outline specific designs of the device capable of delivering over 1 GW of power and perform bench scale demonstration of the key concept of generating electric power using a modular structure containing magnetostrictive elements. Preliminary first order calculations to validate the concept have been carried out.

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Embodiments of the design are expected to have relatively low capital costs and very good survivability during strong storms. They are analogous to piezoelectric materials, but have a large operating bandwidth extending to low frequencies, higher energy density, and capability for higher power and force delivery. For certain embodiments of this particular application, magnetostrictive materials are superior to piezoelectric materials due to their greater mechanical durability and lower production cost in high volumes. Que puedo tomar para dolor de espalda . Thus, seasonal and daily tidal variations may be accounted for in the determination of where to locate the buoys. Additionally, some embodiments include a system to monitor and control the mean tension in the magnetostrictive elements. In addition, hidden costs include the possibility of high replacement costs in the event of catastrophic failure or damage during major storms. The high alloying levels of the relatively scarce and expensive Tb and Dy makes Terfenol-D very expensive. On the other hand, α-Fe based alloys are relatively inexpensive and robust, and α-Fe based alloys provide adequate magnetostrictive behavior for this application, in certain embodiments.

¿Dolor de ciática y espalda? Las 9 posiciones que lograrán.. Other embodiments of devices for generating electricity are also described. Embodiments of the invention relate to methods for generating electricity. Other embodiments of methods for generating electricity are also described. Hence, the location of the buoy relative to the nominal surface of the ocean is a consideration for the device to function effectively. Even compared with other technologies for harvesting ocean power, the lack of moving parts and joints that require lubrication that may leak and pollute the oceans, this technology is exceptionally clean and environmentally friendly. Finally, the technology is friendly to marine life as the structures will not result in any significant impediment to natural migration patterns or affect sea-life in any significant way. The geometries or numbers used in this calculation in no way limit the scope of the present invention and are only intended as an example. This constantly changing magnetic flux density is used to generate an induced voltage in a coil wound around the magnetostrictive element, schematically illustrated in FIG.

The reliability requirement may be divided into a mechanical strength requirement and a corrosion resistance requirement; although the latter may be less critical if appropriate protective jackets, or sheaths, are used. When a wave moves through a location, the geometry outlined here, and shown in FIG. When the buoy is deployed in a body of liquid subject to wave motion, the buoy remains partially submerged during normal wave motion. In one embodiment, the method includes exposing a magnetostrictive element to a force due to wave motion of a body of liquid. In other words, in some embodiments, the buoy is always partially submerged whether it is at the crest of a wave or the trough. Que hacer con dolor de espalda . Referring again to the construction of the magnetostrictive elements, other embodiments may use other materials. If this load were relaxed, the strain plateaus to zero again resulting in a zero flux differential and zero EMF.

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During this period where the saturation strain is exceeded, the magnetic flux is constant resulting in a zero EMF output. FIG. 2 depicts a schematic diagram of one embodiment of the magnetostrictive elements of the energy harvesting device of FIG. FIG. 5 depicts another schematic block diagram of the energy harvesting device of FIG.