These devices tend to be very small devices designed for MEMs systems that can generate under 1 Watt, again consistent with the common perception that magnetostrictive materials are expensive, and suitable only for niche low-power applications. The low hysteresis will result in low magnetomechanical coupling losses, again resulting in improved energy efficiency. 10. Incorporation of second phases or coatings that can result in residual stresses in the material. In some embodiments, methods and devices are included to incorporate magnetostrictive components with the appropriate combination of bias magnetic field and pre-stress that will provide the maximum change in the B -Field in specific magnetostrictive alloys into systems that are designed to generate electric power. In one embodiment, methods and devices are included to incorporate magnetostrictive components 108 with the appropriate combination of bias magnetic field and pre-stress that will provide the maximum change in the B -Field in specific magnetostrictive alloys into systems that are designed to generate electric power by harvesting energy from the ocean.
The pre-stress and/or bias magnetic fields 704 (or magnetic domain orientations 702) may be incorporated into the magnetostrictive elements 110/components 108 during processing. In one embodiment, the pre-stress force may be a compressive stress, and the applied external stress may be a tensile stress. 3) The technology will work well under conditions of low to moderate sustained winds (i.e., moderate wave heights) in addition to areas with high wave heights, making the technology complementary to off-shore wind systems that are optimal for areas of higher wind speeds and moderate wave heights. When the passing wave is at its crest, more of the buoy 102 is submerged in water resulting in a greater tensile load on the magnetostrictive component 108. When the passing wave is at its trough, less of the buoy is submerged resulting in a lower tensile load on the magnetostrictive component 108. In order to optimize power production, the geometry of the individual magnetostrictive cores 110 is specified such that for a given buoy 102, the expected loads generated will result in strains that are below the saturation magnetostriction.
- Toma de tensión arterial para comprobar si existe hipertensión arterial
- Infecciones en las vías urinarias
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- Cast iron: High saturation magnetization (>2.2 T), high relative permeability (2000- 5000)
As the wave oscillates past each buoy 102, the extension of the magnetostrictive element follows a similar oscillation, resulting in a constantly changing magnetic flux density along the length of the magnetostrictive element. This phenomenon can be utilized to generate a significant change in magnetic permeability and therefore magnetic flux density within magnetostrictive materials with a change in tensile stress. Specifically, the application of a compressive pre- stress impacts the magnetic permeability, and therefore the magnetic flux density (B) within the alloy for a given applied magnetic field (h). Specifically, embodiments of the apparatus focus on improving the power density of low-cost magnetostrictive devices, through specific materials, component design and/or manufacturing enhancements, which can significantly reduce electricity costs. 61/300,438, filed February 1, 2010, and entitled “Wave Energy Harvester with Improved Performance” which is incorporated by reference herein in its entirety. WC133R10CN0220 awarded by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. A high proportion of the market share growth in the clean energy sector will go to energy sources that have the capital efficiency, cost effectiveness, and resource availability to scale quickly over the next two decades.
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1) Initial cost modeling indicates that energy cost as low as 2-4 cents/kWh is feasible based on reasonable assumptions using existing alloy materials. This compares with 10-20 cents/kWh projected from conventional approaches to ocean power. These states of pre-stress and/or pre-strain and or magnetic bias may either be created internal to the magnetostrictive material during materials processing, or be caused in the material by mechanically or magnetically coupling with secondary components. For a specific alloy, magnetic measurements similar to that shown in Figure 5 can help identify the appropriate combination of bias magnetic field and pre-stress which maximize the change in magnetic field as a function of external applied stress. Ejercicios para evitar dolor de rodilla . Since the primary objective of an actuator is to deliver displacement against a load, the key requirement for these applications is a high saturation magnetization. We do know from the available data that maximum saturation magnetization may be as large as 1.6 Tesla for Fe-Al alloys.
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Prior work done on iron-aluminum alloys indicates that saturation magnetization may be maximized between 11 and 13% aluminum (see Figure 4). Fig. The improvements outlined herein can further reduce WEH 100 system costs and increase system performance. Although the method 800 is described in conjunction with the WEH 100 of Fig. 1. For high energy efficiency, a high value for the derivative of the magnetization with respect to stress can be used. In one embodiment, the apparatus is an apparatus for harvesting electrical power from water mechanical energy, the apparatus including: a buoy or other water flotation device connected to an anchor by a tether and a magnetostrictive component having an internal pre-stressed magnetostrictive core that experiences at least a part of load changes experienced by the tether.
Alternatively, in these compression fixtures, load cells can be used to determine the stress/strain state of the component that is being loaded. One embodiment covers any device or method for harvesting or generating electric power from the ocean that incorporates a magnetostrictive component 108, which includes a component containing a material whose magnetic properties change as a function of applied stress at least along one direction within the material. For achieving the bias magnetic field, at least one permanent magnet incorporated in the vicinity of the magnetostrictive element or component may be used. Como curar el dolor de espalda alta . The magnetic property of the magnetostrictive core is configured to change with changes in stress within the magnetostrictive core along at least one direction within the magnetostrictive component. Fig. 7 depicts a schematic diagram of one embodiment of magnetic domain orientation 700 in a magnetostrictive component 108 under various stresses/magnetic field configurations.
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Fig. 6 depicts a schematic diagram of one embodiment of a pre-compression loading fixture. 204 is applied to the material 202. Fig. For the purposes of this description, a magnetostrictive material may be considered to be any material that can be designed or configured such that a change in applied stress can result in a change in the magnetic flux and/or magnetic field (the B -field) within the material. Fig. 3 depicts a graph diagram of one embodiment of a comparison of magneto- mechanical coupling coefficients for various magnetostrictive materials. However, while these devices were not pushed to determine the maximum power efficiency, this body of work has shown energy efficiency from mechanical to electrical energy of 60-80% in constant displacement mode over a wide range of frequency (0-2000 Hz) using magnetostrictive materials. The method of pre-stressing the magnetostrictive core may include using other mechanical structural components.