Figure 11 shows a cross-section of an alternative embodiment of a two-stage rotor apparatus installed in a housing 9. In the embodiment shown in Figure 11, in contrast to the Figure 10 arrangement the generators 13 are placed within the inner cone instead of outside the outer cone. However, in the preferred embodiment the blades at the large diameter end are not arranged for solely axial flow, but instead may be adapted to receive or expel fluid flowing with a radial component to its movement. Preferably the method comprises use of the two-stage rotor apparatus to produce energy from a tidal flow, and more preferably use of the rotor to produce electrical energy from the tidal flow. A flowing fluid possesses kinetic energy due to its motion. Viewed from a second aspect, the invention provides a method comprising use of a rotor as described above for the production of rotational kinetic energy from flow of a fluid.
Dolor Sordo Significado
Viewed from a fifth aspect, the invention provides a method comprising use of a two-stage rotor apparatus as described above for the production of rotational kinetic energy from flow of a fluid. Viewed from a fourth aspect, the invention provides a rotor apparatus for extracting energy from bidirectional fluid flows, the rotor apparatus comprising a first rotor mounted 2 0 for rotation about an axis of rotation in a first direction of rotation, the first rotor having at least one helical blade with a pitch that decreases in a direction along the axis of rotation; and a second rotor mounted for rotation about the same axis of rotation in an opposite direction of rotation and having at least one helical blade with a pitch that increases in the same direction along the axis of rotation, wherein fluid exiting the first rotor is passed to the second rotor.
Viewed from a third aspect, the invention provides a method of manufacturing a rotor comprising at least one blade arranged to rotate about an axis of rotation, the method comprising: defining an inner conic helix and an outer conic helix, the conic helixes each having a pitch that decreases as the radius of the helix increases; and forming the blade(s) as a surface extending between inner and outer conic helixes. Preferably the first rotor and the second rotor have a blade or blades of the same shape formed by similar conic helixes. As discussed above, various parameters of the rotor and blade shape can be varied depending on the purpose of the rotor and the operating conditions that it will be exposed to, such as flow rate and so on. The first rotor and/or second rotor may be a cylindrical rotor having a blade formed by a cylindrical helix.
The underlying mathematical spiral of the conic helix can be based on Archimedean, Euler, Fibonacci, Hyperbolic, Lituus, Logarithmic, Theodorus or any other known spiral having varying radius r as a function of the polar coordinate 0 but also having a third variable, the length I, varying also as function of the polar coordinate e. However, the conic helix could alternatively be based on Euler, Fibonacci, Hyperbolic, Lituus, Logarithmic, Theodorus or any other known spiral having varying radius r as a function of the polar coordinate 0 but also having a third variable, the length I, varying also as function of the polar coordinate 0. Some curves and/or the use of non-linear radius increases will result in conic helixes based on conical shapes with convex or concave sides, as discussed above. In a particularly preferred embodiment, a first rotor as described above is provided in combination with a second rotor as described above, with the large diameter ends of the first and second rotors opposing one another, such that fluid exits the large diameter end of one rotor and then enters the large diameter end of the other rotor.
Figure 10 shows an embodiment of a two-stage rotor apparatus that may function as a tidal turbine with a pair of counter-rotating rotors 7, 8 installed in a housing 9 along a common longitudinal axis 4. The housing 9 is shown in cross-section and the rotors 7, 8 are shown in partial cross-section. Alternatively, the inner peripheral surface may be arranged to act as the rotor with stationary parts along the axis of rotation of the rotor providing the stator. Dolor lumbar intestino . The inner peripheral rim 3 is also highlighted. The resulting power extraction would be the same as the initial case but in reverse and the fluid would exit the rotor with only a longitudinal component. The rotors shown in the Figures are similar to the rotors 3 0 illustrated in Figures 1, 2 and 3 herein1 but it will be appreciated that the two-stage rotor apparatus could comprise any pair of rotors with the required helical blade shape, such as any of the alternative embodiments and variations of rotors described herein.
Fisioterapia A Domicilio
The two-stage rotor apparatus is used to accommodate a unidirectional flow and also a reversible or cyclic flow by the combination of two of the rotors. The rotor housing may be used to enhance the performance of the rotors. As can be seen from Figure BA, the two rotors are mounted end to end on a common axis of rotation 4. In use, the rotors with counter-rotate as described above. With these arrangements the rotor and stator form an electrical generator set that is driven by the liquid flow and directly converts the motion of the rotor into electrical energy without the need to transfer the rotational force to an additional device. In preferred embodiments the first rotor and/or second rotor have a blade or blades formed by a surface extending between inner and outer conic helixes, the conic helixes each having a pitch that decreases as the radius of the helix increases.
In preferred embodiments the blade extends between and is mounted to both the outer rim and inner surface. Whilst a single blade could be used it is advantageous to use multiple blades. In the rotors shown in the Figures three identical rotor blades 2 are present. Alternatively, the blades may be formed as surfaces generated by curves between points on the inner and outer conic helixes at the same longitudinal distance along the direction of the axis of rotation of the rotor. The geometry of the rotors is based on pair of conic helixes 5, 6 that have an increase in radius r with a polar coordinate U along the longitudinal axis 4, each helix 5, 6 possessing a different initial radius. Causas del dolor de espalda alta . Then aquatic life may pass through the device unharmed by being carried along by the swirling flow. For example, in a preferred embodiment the rotor is used in a turbine for generating electricity from tidal flows.
Dolor Muscular Cadera
Fluid flow in either direction would be efficiently converted into rotational movement and, in accordance with the preferred embodiment of the rotor, converted into electrical power by generators. The housing may enclose the rotor and support bearings or shafts enabling rotation of the rotor. Several generators may be placed around the periphery of a rotating outer rim in order to extract the maximum power and/or be placed in an internal central space of the rotor and extract power from the rotating inner rim. Alternatively, the inner conic helix radius may increase at a faster rate than the outer conic helix radius in order to increase hydrodynamic reaction forces and torsional forces. In some of the variants discussed above, the inner and outer conic helixes are formed on non-parallel conic surfaces.
The outer rotating rim of the rotor may be arranged to act as the rotor in the electrical generator with a part of a stationary housing being the stator. Figures 4A and 4B show a variation of the rotor. Figures 6A and 6B show a further variation which has parallel in net and outer cones as in Figures 1 and 2, but in which the helical pitch decreases at a slower rate than the previously described embodiments. The pair of conic helixes 5 and 6 are generated in a clockwise direction and have different initial radii which increase at an equal rate to form a pair of parallel conic helixes. For larger cross-flow deviations, the rotor housing may have a steering and suspension system and include fins, gearing and buoyancy control devices in order for it to adjust its position within a flow field in order to optimise performance or to surface for maintenance purposes if submerged in a liquid stream.
This has the effect of increasing the changes in the velocity components and since the mass flow is constant, the hydrodynamic reaction forces produced are larger. Figure 13 is a graph illustrating the effect of varying the ratio of the outer maximum diameter Do of the rotor to the minimum outer diameter do. In operation, particularly in tidal turbine applications, the two-stage rotor apparatus may be supported on a floor, e.g. At this stage the fluid possesses both a longitudinal and radial component. In this case a sub unit of the arrangement containing the rotor and electrical components only could be separated from the main installed structure leaving the main installed structure in place. For each complicated flow passage a separate set of torsional forces result, the total torsional force around the longitudinal axis of the rotor being the sum of all torsional forces acting around the longitudinal axis of the rotor.
- Obstrucción intestinal
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- Provisional Patent Application 62/184,438
According to this set of equations it can be understood that a change in the rate of decrease of the helical pitch will result in an increase or decrease in the torsional forces and power output. For example, the method may comprise selecting the rate of change of radius of one conic helix or both conic helixes based on a desired torsional force output for a predetermined flow condition. A hydrodynamic reaction force is created on a solid surface when a body of fluid flowing over the solid surface experiences a change of momentum.