“Artificial Muscle Microactuators”, which is incorporated by reference herein for all purposes and which claims priority under 35 U.S.C. CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATION This application claims priority under 35 U.S.C. Thus, continuous application of the voltage allows for continuous pumping by the tube pumping device. After application of a voltage between the electrodes 14 and 16, the electroactive polymer 12 increases in size in both planar directions 18 and 20. In some cases, the electroactive polymer 12 is incompressible, e.g. As the wave moves down the transducer 328, it may push fluid ahead of it. Thus, the fluid may be moved from the inlet 342 to the exit 343. After the wave has traveled to the exit, it may be regenerated at the inlet 342 in a repeating pattern to generate continuous pumping. Conventional pumps and compressors are predominantly piston-driven with an electric motor; these conventional devices tend to be heavy (bulky), noisy, inefficient at slow speeds (or require gearboxes to step down higher speeds), and can be mechanically complex and costly.
As part of the thermal control system, the spherical cooling pump 330 is connected to a closed fluid conduit 335 carrying a fluid 336. In operation, a voltage is applied to the spherical EPAM transducer 333 that causes an EPAM polymer in the transducer to deflect outwardly and a volume of the pumping chamber 334 to increase. Details of EPAM valve designs that may be used with the piston-driven pump 320 and other embodiments of the present invention are described in co-pending U.S.
Dolor De Garganta
For instance, a medical device 502 for delivering a drug, such as insulin, may be implanted under the skin and use an EPAM device to pump the insulin into the body. As will be described in further detail below for fabrication, device 20 may be fabricated by rolling a prestrained electroactive polymer film around spring 24 while it the spring is compressed. While this invention has been described in terms of several preferred embodiments, there are alterations, permutations, and equivalents that fall within the scope of this invention which have been omitted for brevity’s sake. This embodiment provides easy fabrication of large, multilayer EPAM pumps, good coupling to EP actuation, and accommodates high pre-strain, which improves EPAM transducer performance. Escalofrios y dolor muscular . In one embodiment, the resistor has a high resistance such that the RC time constant of open loop control 138 and transducer 132 connected in series is long compared to a frequency of interest.
When a voltage is applied to the roll transducers, the transducers 328 lengthen and when the voltage is removed, the transducers contract. In the embodiments described above, the electroactive polymer devices for performing thermodynamic work on a fluid can provide many advantages over conventional pump/compressor technologies including quieter operation (elimination of a piston-based system and subsequent use of small high frequency actuators, operating at frequencies outside the human audible range), lower cost (inexpensive materials, simpler design and fewer parts than an equivalent electric motor system), and higher efficiency.
Tipos De Dolor Oms
FIG. 4L shows the outermost layer of polymer 182 and radially aligned active areas 184, 186, and 188, which are disposed such that their centers mark 90 degree increments relative to each other. Alternatively, three radially aligned active area sets disposed at 120 degree increments may be suitable for 2D and 3-D motion. No. 10/066,407 entitled “Devices and Methods for Controlling Fluid Flow Using Elastic Sheet Deflection,” filed Jan. The device may also comprise one or more fluid conduits used to provide at least a portion of a flow path for allowing the fluid to travel through the device and one or more valves for controlling one of a flow rate, a flow direction and combinations thereof of the fluid through the flow path.
Thus, the flow rate in the middle may be greater than towards the outside. For instance, the EPAM devices may be used to move and control fluids in dive suits, to circulate fluids in biological/chemical protection suits and to circulate fluids in fire protection suits. As examples, pumps, fans and/or compressors are used for circulating refrigerant and removing waste heat in cooling systems (e.g., air conditioning, refrigeration), pumping water in washing machine and dishwashers, removing waste heat from heat sources (e.g., CPU) in the computing industry, pressurizing air for pneumatic systems, transporting water for irrigation, transporting oil and gas in pipelines, and moving fluids between various unit operations in a chemical process plant.
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To help illustrate the performance of an electroactive polymer in converting between electrical energy and mechanical energy, FIG. 4E illustrates a side view of end piece 27 in accordance with one embodiment of the present invention. FIG. 4N illustrates an electrical schematic of an open loop variable stiffness/damping system in accordance with one embodiment of the present invention. As described above, transducers of the present invention may behave electrically as variable capacitors.