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All of these functions may not be required in the conditioning electronics 610. For instance, some transducer devices may not use step-up circuitry 602, other transducer devices may not use step-down circuitry 608, or some transducer devices may not use step-up circuitry and step-down circuitry. For some cases, different stages may be of different sizes, have different strokes, and comprise different layers of electroactive polymer film.

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Builder woman wearing construction uniform and safety helmet looking unwell touching shoulder suffering from pain standing over isolated white wall Also, some of the circuit functions may be integrated. Also, the transducers may be actuated in a time varying sequence. Or as described above, a bias pressure may be applied to the roll transducer by adding a sealed housing around the roll transducer. 4A-4E and 4K-4M. The EPAM roll transducers have also been described in detail in co-pending U.S. In one embodiment, a tubular housing may be used instead of the rigid rods 359. Between the roll transducer 352 and the tubular housing, a partial vacuum may be generated to generate an outward bias on the roll transducer 352. In another embodiment, a bias material 352, such as foam, may be used between the tubular housing and the roll transducer 352 to generate a restoring force in a direction opposite to the direction in which the transducer expands. Other methods for biasing diaphragm-type transducers include the use of a bias material 397, such as foam, pressure (or vacuum), and a swelling agent (e.g., a small amount of silicone oil).

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4H, rigid members 204 provide a large stiffness to forces 209 in direction 208, according to their material stiffness. This wave like motion entrains fluid towards the exit as the diaphragms are deflected in their wave pattern. In this embodiment, a motion of the transducers may be generated that provide an angular momentum to the support structure 303. In this case, the support structure and all of the transducers may start to rotate, like a fan, which may move the fluid in a direction that is proximately perpendicular to the radial motion of the direction of the fluid 301. When the transducers act as fan blades, their shape, such as their pitch, may be controlled to increase or decrease their aerodynamic efficiency. With traditional devices using pistons, the volume of the pumping chamber goes from a maximum when the piston is at the top of its stroke to minimum when the piston is at a bottom of its stroke.

When energy is supplied to the EPAM transducers 302, the EPAM transducers 302 extend in length and the bladder 312 increases in volume drawing fluid into the bladder and lengthening the coil spring 311. When energy is removed or decreased to the EPAM transducers 302, the EPAM transducers contract and the support plates may be pulled together by the coil spring, reducing the volume of the bladder 312 and expelling fluid from the bladder 312 via the flow conduit.

The upward motion increases the volume of the bladder to draw fluid into the bladder from the flow conduit in the direction shown by the arrows. The deflection of the portion of the electroactive polymer may squeeze the bladder or bellows to reduce a volume of the bladder or the bellows. For example, actuation electric fields used to actuate polymer 12 in FIG. Actuation voltages for a particular polymer may be reduced by increasing the dielectric constant, decreasing the polymer thickness, and decreasing the modulus of elasticity, for example.

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FIGS. 4A-2E show a rolled electroactive polymer device 20 in accordance with one embodiment of the present invention. Como quitar el dolor de espalda . FIG. 4K illustrates a monolithic transducer 170 comprising a plurality of active areas on a single polymer 172, before rolling, in accordance with one embodiment of the present invention. An electroactive polymer layer in transducers of the present invention may have a wide range of thicknesses. There are a wide variety of mechanical linkages known in the prior art and the present invention is not limited to the example shown in FIG. While not wishing to be bound by theory, it is believed that pre-straining a polymer in one direction may increase the stiffness of the polymer in the pre-strain direction. In a particular embodiment, the device may further comprise a clamp plate with a plurality of apertures where the electroactive polymer is an electroactive polymer film designed to deflect into the plurality of apertures.

Polymer 22 is wound repeatedly about spring 22. For single electroactive polymer layer construction, a rolled electroactive polymer of the present invention may comprise between about 2 and about 200 layers. A low flatness parameter for each stage that is possible with the pumps of the present invention may enable stacking configurations that are not possible with conventional pumps. For all embodiments described herein, a multiple stage (multistage) pump or compressor can be built with check valves between the stages to increase the pressure after each stage.

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The electrode immediately between the two polymers services both polymer surfaces in immediate contact. Active areas 176 then comprise portions of polymer 172 between each individual electrode 174 and the electrode on the opposite side of polymer 172, as determined by the mode of operation of the active area. Regardless of the number of layers used, the rolled transducer is configured such that a given polarity electrode does not touch an electrode of opposite polarity.

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An active area may be configured such that sensing is performed simultaneously with actuation of the active area. For example, a 1000 Hz sensing signal may be superimposed on a 10 Hz actuation signal. 4L with actuation for one set of radially aligned active areas. Dolor de codo y hombro izquierdo . Each layer comprises four radially aligned active areas.

Active areas of the present invention may also be configured to provide variable stiffness and damping functions. 2A-2K and 3A-3J. In section 3, embodiments of EPAM transducers of the present invention are described in regards to FIGS. The fluids of the present invention may include materials in states of a liquid, a gas, a plasma, a phase change, a solid or combinations thereof. The device may include an insulation barrier designed or configured to protect the one surface from constituents of the fluid in contact with the one surface or one or more support structures designed or configured to attach to the one or more transducers. Polymers comprising silicone and acrylic moieties may include copolymers comprising silicone and acrylic moieties, polymer blends comprising a silicone elastomer and an acrylic elastomer, for example.

In a particular embodiment, one or more portions of the electroactive polymer may act as the heat exchanger. The deflection of the portion of the electroactive polymer may cause the fan blade to rotate. In this manner, the second electroactive polymer with no electrodes patterned thereon uses the two electrodes on the first electroded polymer. Thus, any of the rolled polymers, active areas, polymer configurations, transducers, and devices described herein may be a transducer for converting mechanical energy to electrical energy (generation, variable stiffness or damping, or sensing) and for converting electrical energy to mechanical energy (actuation, variable stiffness or damping, or sensing). In one embodiment, pre-strain is applied uniformly over a portion of polymer 12 to produce an isotropic pre-strained polymer. For instance, the devices may generate over 270 degrees of bending at scales of 5-10 mm. The devices may be used in thermal control systems, such as refrigeration system, cooling systems and heating systems.

In a traditional piston-driven pump, the motion of the piston is driven by a separate motor, such as an electric motor. To use the device 320 as a compressor, fluid is prevented from leaving the pumping chamber while the piston compressors the fluid in the pumping chamber is compressed by using an appropriate valve design. For many applications, there is a need for pumps, fans, compressors and hydraulic devices that are more lightweight, higher power and efficiency, quieter, and lower cost.

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