In a feature of a first arrangement of this invention, namely that in which, in the second state, the linear generator, acting as a motor, is used to lift the float above the waves, a rugged protection chamber is provided into which the float can fit at an upper point in its travel. Of the three of these parameters, that which must be achieved first within the context of apparatus situated within the inhospitable and destructive environment of the oceans, is reliability.
These currents are used to maintain charged the battery 28, which as well as supplying the valve and radio receiver, can also be used to illuminate a hazard warning light 32. Once it is safe to resume operation, the float is returned to the surface and lifted above wave level to allow sea water to drain out from it. The valve is then closed, using the radio control, and the float re-established within the waves for the continued generation of power. As the gas molecules collide with the walls of a container, the molecules impart momentum to the walls, producing a force that can be measured. The density of a gas is simply the sum of the mass of the molecules divided by the volume which the gas occupies.
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Unfortunately, although maybe only several times a year, wild storms do occur, and during these, the kinetic energy imparted by sea waves to any structure or device they encounter can be two orders of magnitude greater than that for which the devices had been originally been designed. Solving the problem of designing apparatus that can withstand these occasional onslaughts and at a reasonable capital cost, is essential for the viability of any form of wave power generating apparatus. This invention may clearly be applied to the case in which the generating apparatus is supported in a tower above sea level, (as described in the co-pending application), or to an alternative case where the generating apparatus is contained within a tower which itself is submerged. Power station means are furthermore described in that application, in which multiple generating units are contained safely within a tower mounted above the sea waves, and motion of the float of each unit is imparted respectively to each linear generator by a rigid mechanical connection means, for example, a cylindrical tube, or the like.
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It will be appreciated that in the case of the submerged arrangement, all of the unsightly elements of the generating apparatus are maintained below sea level, the only visible parts being the floats-which may be coloured sea blue. Thus, it will be appreciated that wave powered generating apparatus is provided which, in operation, is substantially immune to the ravages of excessive storms. The following invention relates to apparatus which, in use, is located within the sea for the generation of electrical power from the motion of waves.
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In a feature of the alternative arrangement of the invention, in which, in the second state, the float is submerged either partially, or completely below the worst excesses of the waves, thereby removing the need for any protection chamber as just described, the flotation chamber of the float is equipped with a valve, operable by the control means of the invention, for enabling flooding of the float to assist with its submersion. Similarly, as the waves fall, the weight of the stator and its float causes the stator also to fall, so again causing relative motion, and the further generation of electricity. Dolor de espalda baja remedios . In the invention of this co-pending application, because a linear generator is employed, electricity is generated without any need for linear to rotary motion conversion means, as has been the case with the other devices mentioned above. With regard to this alternative arrangement, all of the above described detection, measurement and restoration functions relating to the tower-above-sea-level embodiment remain the same.
To overcome the waste of energy necessary to maintain the float-by means of the linear motor-against gravity in its elevated position above the sea, a mechanical latch is provided to lock the float within its elevated position. A determination can thus be made as to whether to extract (or submerge) the float for its protection. In the realisation shown, the generator is of tubular construction, and its stator, 14, passes coaxially through the armature.
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Rather than receiving generated currents, and passing these on to external distribution networks, the control means instead feeds the coils of the generator-now acting as a motor-with appropriately commutated currents to effect movement. However, in the event of a storm, rather than lift the float and paddle combination clear of the waves, the control means is instead used to cause the linear generator-now acting as a motor-to submerge the float itself well below the sea wave level, as shown in FIG. A timer (not shown) within the control means, is used to cause it to restore the float and paddle to sea level after a period of time reasonable for typical storms in the area to abate. In stormy conditions, it is desirable to protect the float and paddle combination 15, 16, from destruction, or indeed destruction of the whole apparatus, by over-vigorous waves.
At the molecular level, there is no distinction between the random component and the ordered component. There are several other such devices. These devices are, naturally, designed to operate effectively in ‘average’ sea conditions, that is, taking into account the probable normal wave duration, height, and energy. The ordered motion is superimposed, or added to, the normal random motion of the molecules. The pressure produced by the ordered motion is called dynamic pressure. The entire fluid can be made to move as well in an ordered motion (flow). We can directly measure, or sense, the large scale action of the gas. Gases can be studied by considering the small scale action of individual molecules or by considering the large scale action of the gas as a whole.
But in a gas, the molecules can move around and interact with each other and with their surroundings in different ways. But to study the action of the molecules, we must use a theoretical model. Typical examples of conversion means are the use of gear chains, or hydraulic pumps, to turn rotary electrical generators.
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The power generated thereby is used for two purposes, one being for the operation of a hazard warning lamp on the float, and the other, for supplying the electrical power necessary for operation of the flooding valve of the float. Other, optional, features of the invention are defined in the sub-claims. The force divided by the area is defined to be the pressure. Dolor de espalda que puede ser . In accordance with electrical engineering theory, the amplitude of these voltages provides information on the rate of movement, and the number of cycles generated in a particular movement of the stator provides information on the overall distance travelled. 9916779.3, machinery is disclosed for converting the energy of sea waves directly to electrical power, by means of the use of a float immersed within the sea waves to cause relative movement between the armature and stator of a linear generator, and in particular, a linear generator being a linear motor used in reverse and of a tubular construction.