Given the optimal load for the 7.5 mm actuator was determined to be 250 Ohms, the effect of initial displacement on power output can be determined. Also, all competitive energy harvesting companies report their power delivered into an optimal load as well, so this allows the power output of the Viking actuator to be compared to competitive energy harvesting devices. The discharge behavior of the Viking actuators may be understood by displacing the 7.5 mm actuator and observing the voltage output of the actuator across a 250 Ohm load. While the PMG17 is an electromagnetic 120 Hz resonant device whose operational principle is quite different from the Viking device, this nevertheless provides a value for comparison from the state-of-the-art vibration-based energy harvesting device. The rigidity, stroke, and mass of the ViVa actuator may be further optimized for energy harvesting by increasing the amplitude of displacement before any portion of the device yields and decreasing mass, thereby resulting in an increase in resonant frequency.
That material may be a metal such as stainless steel, from which high-precision laser cutting or chemical etching is used to cut the shape of mechanical amplifier 10. In alternate embodiments, mechanical amplifier 10 may be formed from silicon via the etching process traditionally used to form semiconductors, thereby leading to even smaller actuator bodies. In such embodiments, actuating arms 40 may be angled away from fixed supporting member 20 to a greater degree before insertion of piezoelectric stack 100. In such embodiments, piezoelectric stack 100 may be inserted by compressing actuating arms 40, inserting stack 100, and then releasing actuating arms 40. As is shown in FIG.
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From the figure it can be seen that the peak power outputs of all of the actuators are greater than one Watt with the chosen initial displacements. To produce 225 mJ of energy with a single excitation is indicative of far greater efficiency than is available with devices known in the art. Electromechanical vibration energy harvesting devices are known in the art.
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DETAILED DESCRIPTION – While the following describes preferred embodiments of the present disclosure, it is to be understood that this description is to be considered only as illustrative of the principles of the disclosure and is not to be limitative thereof, as numerous other variations, all within the scope of the disclosure, will readily occur to others. BACKGROUND – The present disclosure relates to an apparatus and method for generating electrical energy from mechanical motion using a piezo actuator or other smart material device. Such piezoelectric stacks may be formed by printing electrodes on either end of a ceramic piezoelectric material 111 using known techniques. 5, an alternate installation method may be used by forming preferably 2 holes 26 in fixed supporting member 20 and another 2 holes 36 in movable supporting member 30. In this way a tool (not shown) having 4 pins adapted to be captured by holes 26, 36 may be used to urge first mounting surface 24 and second mounting surface 34 apart a sufficient amount to allow for the insertion of stack 100. By forming holes 26, 36 in a rectangular pattern, the force applied by such tool will be applied evenly so that undesirable twisting is minimized.
This is a tremendous amount of power for a piezo-based energy harvesting device. Dolor de la planta del pie . The energy harvesting apparatus 1 of the present disclosure comprises a mechanical amplifier 10 connected to a piezoelectric stack 100 or other smart material device adapted such that when mechanical force is applied to the amplifier 10, the piezoelectric stack 100 or other smart material device is subjected to a mechanical load, there by generating an electrical current. Since the piezostack has many layers of piezoceramic material the current outputs of each layer can be summed to achieve sizable currents. Volts. Since there is a 250 Ohm load attached to the output of the actuator the stack voltage then begins to decay as the charge on the stack is dissipated through the resistive load. While there is no guarantee that a load being powered by the actuator in a “real” application would equal 250 Ohms, this does provide the maximum power output that can be achieved for a given excitation and hence is a useful benchmark for the tested actuator.
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This shows that the stack can only slightly recover charge even though the mechanical load continues to provide uniform strain on the stack. Accordingly, by connecting the stack to a known resistive load, displacing it to charge it, and then monitoring the stack voltage across the load, the capacitance may be determined. Referring to FIGS. 3 and 4, Piezoelectric stack 100 is preferably formed of one or more sections of piezoelectric material 111 with a positive electrode 112 and a negative electrode 116. Many varieties of piezoelectric materials (materials that expand when an electric potential is applied or generate an electric charge when mechanical force is applied) are known in the art and may be adapted for use in the present disclosure. Mechanical amplifier 10 further comprises opposed movable supporting member 30, which has second mounting surface 34. Piezoelectric stack 100 is affixed between first mounting surface 24 and second mounting surface 34. While adhesives may be used to secure piezoelectric stack 100, in certain embodiments such adhesives are not necessary as the compressive force supplied by movable supporting member 30 pressing piezoelectric stack 100 against first mounting surface 24 of fixed supporting member 20 will generally be sufficient to secure piezoelectric stack 100 in place.
Although this disclosure has been described in terms of certain embodiments and generally associated methods, alterations and permutations of these embodiments and methods will be apparent to those skilled in the art. It is to be understood throughout this disclosure that an actuator in accordance with the present disclosure can function both as an actuator, converting electrical energy to mechanical movement, as well as in reverse, converting mechanical movement into electrical energy. The amount of electric potential (or voltage) generated by piezoelectric stack 100 will be proportional to the amount of movement of actuator arm(s) 40. Accordingly, by analyzing the amount of energy harvested, the degree of movement of actuator arms 40 can be determined. The actuator will then oscillate back and forth, compressing and expanding the piezoelectric stack 100. As the oscillating actuator slows, the amount of electricity generated will diminish. 4) between at least one end of piezoelectric stack 100 and either first mounting surface 24 or second mounting surface 34. This enables the body of mechanical amplifier 10 to be electrically connected to one pole of piezoelectric stack 100, serving, for example, as a ground.
A preferred embodiment of mechanical amplifier 10 comprises fixed supporting member 20 having first mounting surface 24. Fixed supporting member 20 serves the purpose of rigidly supporting piezoelectric stack 100 with a suitable preload compression as is discussed further below. Dolor en la raiz de la pierna . First mounting surface 24 is preferably shaped to connect firmly and evenly with piezoelectric stack 100, with an optional insulator 101 (shown on FIG. Subjecting the piezoelectric stack 100 to the mechanical load causes it to generate electricity. As such, less material may be used to generate effects comparable to larger co-fired stacks. This is important to note as it demonstrates that a step change in displacement can be used in an application to generate useful power even in the absence of the free vibration of the actuator. From the figure it can be seen that the peak power output is a somewhat linear function of the initial displacement. It should also be noted that the peak power output of the 7.5 mm actuator was 1.6 Watts.
- Producing a capture element with a rigid top part presenting said design
- Defectos congénitos
- Aceite esencial de lavanda
- La debilidad en el brazo, la muñeca y los dedos impide realizar actividades rutinarias
- Pérdida del cabello y piel seca
The dial indicator was then removed and the feeler gage was pulled out quickly allowing the actuating arm 40 of the actuator 1 to oscillate. The internal leakage of the stack may be better understood by displacing the actuator arm by 0.125″ and holding it there. 6, when shorter stacks 100 are used, actuator arms 40 may extend well beyond fixed supporting member 20. Once again, it will be clear to those of ordinary skill in the art that many different sizes, including both larger and smaller sizes, may be created using such stacks.