Wires 2047 and 2049 may be isolated from each other by isolating layer 2094. The other side of the thermoelectric generator (which may also be referred to as a thermocouple) is coupled to heat sinks 2060, which are at a lower temperature than resistor 2048. Persons skilled in the art will appreciate that other devices may be used, such as thermal to electric heat engines (such as, for example, a thermionic heat engine), rather than thermoelectric generators described herein, without departing from the spirit of the present invention. As shown in system 2700, this mounting assembly may include contact layer 2741, isolation layer 2752, and charge member layer 2722. However, system 2700 may also be configured, for example, such that only contact layer 2741 or isolation layer 2742 forms this mounting assembly.
Dolor Espalda Baja
The outer conductive layers of the piezoelectric material are in contact with resistor assembly, so that a current flows, which heats up the resistor. 3, persons skilled in the art will recognize that Johnson noise may be present in system 300. Johnson noise is a result of the random movement of carriers, generally brought about because of temperature vibrations, in the body of a resistor that generates an unwanted voltage. A voltage is applied to the capacitor (across the plates), which creates an electric field (“E”) that keeps the length of the tubes perpendicular to the surface of the capacitor plate.
- El trabajo
- A WEC as claimed in claim 12, further including a displacement
- Valoración del dolor agudo postoperatorio
- El sueño y el baño. Son deleites físicos que calman el espíritu
- El reservorio es animal, probablemente en los cerdos hacinados
- Mejora la potencia sexual
Thermocouple 116 is a thermoelectric generator that, in response to a temperature differential, produces a voltage across a pair of leads and, if the leads are connected to a load, a DC current. Persons skilled in the art will appreciate that the thermoelectric generating components of system 2100 are not needed to obtain an electrical current or potential. Persons skilled in the art will appreciate that two components do not have to be connected or coupled together in order for these two components to electrically interact with each other. More particularly, the mounting assembly fixes a portion of nanotube 2711 to base 2793 while providing nanotube 2711 with a portion that is free to move. The entire assembly is immersed in a fluid (i.e., a liquid or a gas). Assembly 1000 includes many nanotubes 1002, all connected to a base 1004. Unlike the previous embodiments, nanotubes 1002 are closed at their upper end such that gas molecules are captured within each nanotube 1002. In addition, as shown in FIG.
System 400 operates in very much the same way as previously described for system 300. Statistical variation in gas pressure about paddles 402, 422 and 442 cause the free end of paddle 402 to vibrate up and down, thereby causing strain in the piezoelectric material, which generates a voltage on the conductive outer layers of the piezoelectric material. Systems 500 and 600 each include a multitude of paddle assemblies 302, coupled to generators 304 which are themselves, coupled to wires 307 and 309 that are connected to heat sinks 360. This may be more apparent by viewing the dashed box showing where the portion of system 300 of FIG. Additional advantageous nanometer scale electromechanical assemblies are described in commonly assigned copending U.S. Ser. No. Medicamentos para el dolor de columna lumbar . 10/453,783 to Pinkerton et al., entitled “Nanoelectromechanical Transistors and Switch Systems”, commonly assigned copending U.S. Ser. No. 10/453,199 to Pinkerton et. Ser. No. 09/885,367, filed Jun.
Tecnicas De Relajacion
In turn, this electrical energy may then be fed back into the microprocessor in order to reduce the microprocessor’s power consumption and reduce the magnitude of input power needed to operate the microprocessor while simultaneously cooling the microprocessor. Accordingly, it is an object of the present invention to provide nanometer scale electromechanical systems that efficiently convert molecular-level energy into another form that can be used at a macroscopic scale.
In other words, switch 1912 can also be used to create a pulsating DC voltage. Each of the thermocouples produces an output (i.e., a DC current and voltage) that can be summed through a simple series connection to produce an output, depending on the number of paddles and configuration, on the order of several milliwatts. Looking at graph 1800, it becomes apparent that, at any one time, multiple molecules having a wide range of velocities may impact paddles 302, 322, and 342 of FIG.
Tipos De Dolor Crónico
Maxwellian curve 1800 therefore shows the range of velocities that molecules have in a working substance. FIG. 3 shows another embodiment of a portion of a nanometer scale electromechanical system 300 constructed in accordance with the principles of the present invention. Electroestimulacion para dolor lumbar . 1A shows an illustrative example of a portion of a nanometer scale electromechanical system constructed in accordance with the present invention. Paddle assemblies 2410 and 2420 are shown with respect to their resting locations 2401 and 2402, respectively. 4, each of the paddle assemblies 402, 422 and 442 includes an impact mass 490 and a multitude of nanotubes 492 that are mounted on impact mass 490 such that they are substantially perpendicular to impact mass 490. Each of nanotubes 492 may, for example, be constructed of a material such as carbon, having a diameter of about approximately 2 nanometers and a height of about approximately 25-50 nanometers (persons skilled in the art will appreciate that the dimensions of nanotubes 492 may be varied without departing from the spirit of the present invention).
Row 2310 includes paddle assemblies 2312, 2302, 2322, and 2342, while row 2320 includes paddle assemblies 2368, 2366, 2364 and 2362. Each paddle assembly is controlled by an automatic switch similar to automatic switch 2261 of FIG. 25. FIG. 25 illustrates system 2500 that includes load resistor 2590 between lines 2592 and 2594. Load resistor 2590 may be thermally isolated from the working substance.
Dolor Neuropático Fisterra
The piezoelectric generators are each formed from a portion of piezoelectric material and a resistor assembly. More specifically, HIGH currents only occur in resistor 1304 when the nanotubes are hit by molecules moving at relatively HIGH velocities because HIGH currents produce a HIGH magnetic field in resistor 1304. If this HIGH magnetic field is large enough, it will overcome the resistor’s critical magnetic field and become a normal resistive conductor. 18) if an external magnetic field is present (not shown in FIG. The portion of system 400 shown in FIG. 1A, is molecule 110 which is shown as having bounced off of paddle 100, and is now traveling at a reduced velocity. Dolor en los dedos de la mano . In increasing the distance between switch 2091 and the resting location of paddle assembly 2042, the amount of force needed to close paddle assembly 2042 to switch 2091 also increases. ” in FIG. 11) penetrates assembly 1100 which is perpendicular to rails 1104 and 1106 and base 1108. The operation of assembly 1100 is illustrated in FIG.
In system 400, however, the up and down motion of the paddles in system 400 may be enhanced by nanotubes 492, which cause additional molecular impacts. Persons skilled in the art will also notice that some of the paddles of system 2200 share common upper conductive layers. If a million or so of paddles 100 were arranged together in an array (see, for example, FIGS. FIG. 23 depicts circuit 2300 in which the array principles of system 2200 of FIG. For example, if a given subassembly was formed to include an array of paddle assemblies in which each assembly occupied approximately one hundred square nanometers, a square centimeter assembly would include roughly one trillion paddle assemblies. In this instance, paddle assemblies 302, 322 and 342 are attached at one end which is generally referred to by numeral 380 in FIG.
In general, however, the impact of molecule 1910 with paddle 1901 results, on average, with a reduction in velocity. Operation of assembly 1300 is similar to assembly 1100, and is illustrated with respect to FIG. In particular, paddle assembly 2042 may oscillate due to thermal vibrations. This mounting assembly may take on various forms.
17. It will also be recognized that the invention may take many forms other than those disclosed in this specification. Although a sphere is shown, other shapes such as a cube, cylinder, etc., may be used. Although such embodiments do not require a surrounding fluid to operate, immersing them in a working substance may be beneficial. Heat may also be introduced on this working substance in order to increase the velocities of the molecules that the working substance contains. Horizontal axis 1802 represents the possible velocities for a molecule in a working substance. For example, system 2800 of FIG. For example, terminals 2622, 2641, and 2642 could be utilized as, for example, gate, source, and drain terminals, respectively. When no static charge is placed on base terminal 2622, switch 2611 moves between positions 2612 and 2613 due to its thermal vibrations and rarely (e.g., once per hour) touches emitter terminal 2642. If a static charge is placed on base terminal 2622 and switch 2611 gains positive charge by voltage source 2631, switch 2611 may connect to emitter terminal 2642 more frequently (e.g, once per millisecond).